Appendix A. A bibliographic list of additional sources.
Abramova, E. N. 1999. Composition, abundance and population structure of spring-time zooplankton in the shelf-zone of Laptev Sea. Pages 161168 in H. Kassens, H. A. Bauch, I. A. Dmitrenke, H. Eicken, H.-W. Hubberten, M. Melles, J. Thiede, and L. A. Timokhov, editors. Land-ocean systems in the Siberian Arctic. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Ainley, D. G., and D. P. DeMaster. 1990. The upper trophic levels in polar marine ecosystems. Pages 599630 in W. O. Jr. Smith, editor. Polar oceanography. Part B: chemistry, biology, and geology. Academic Press, London, UK.
Ambrose, W. G., Jr., L. M. Clough, P. R. Tilney, and L. Beer. 2001. Role of echinoderms in benthic remineralization in the Chukchi Sea. Marine Biology 139:937949.
Andriyashev A. P., B. F. Mukhomediayaro, and E. A. Pavshtiks. 1980. Nekton (composition and distribution). Pages 196211 in M. E. Vinogradov, and I. A. Melnikov, editors. Biologiya Tsentral'nogo arktischeskogo basseina. Nauka, Moscow, Russia.
Antipova, T. V. 1975. Preliminary data on species composition and quantitative distribution of the Barents Sea bivalves. Okeanologia 15:330332 (in Russian).
Arkhipkin, A. I., and H. Bjoerke. 1999. Ontogenetic changes in morphometric and reproductive indices of the squid Gonatus fabricii (Oegopsida, Gonatidae) in the Norwegian Sea. Polar Biology 22:357365
Barry R. G., M. C. Serreze, J. A. Maslanik, and R. H. Preller. 1993. The Arctic Sea ice-climate system: observations and modeling. Review Geophysics 31:397422.
Barthel, K-G. 1988. Feeding of three Calanus species on different phytoplankton assemblages in the Greenland Sea. Meeresforschung 32:92106.
Beamish, R. J., and D. R. Bouillon. 1993. Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50:10021016.
Benson, A. J., and A. W. Trites. 2002. Ecological effects of regime shifts in the Bering Sea and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Fish Fisheries 3:95113.
Bigg, M. A., and I. Fawcett. 1985. Two biases in diet determination of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). Pages 284291 in J. R. Beddington, R. J. H. Beverton, and D. M. Lavigne, editors. Marine mammals and fisheries. George Allen & Unwin, London, UK.
Bluhm, B. A., D. Piepenburg, and K. v. Juterzenka. 1998. Distribution, standing stock, growth, mortality and production of Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the northern Barents Sea. Polar Biology 20:325334.
Bluhm, B. A., I. R. MacDonald, C. Debenham, and K. Iken. 2005. Macro- and megabenthic communities in the high Arctic Canada Basin: initial findings. Polar Biology 28:218231.
Bluhm, B. A., K. O. Coyle, B. Konar, and R. C. Highsmith. In revision. High gray whale densities associated with an oceanographic front in the southcentral Chukchi Sea. Deep-Sea Research II.
Boltunov, A. N., and S. E. Belikov. 2002. Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) of the Barents, Kara and Laptev Seas. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:149168.
Bogoslovskaya, L. S., L. M. Votrogov, and T. N. Semenova. 1981. Feeding habits of the gray whale off Chukotka. Reports of the international Whaling Commission 31:50710.
Bradstreet, M. S. W. 1988. Importance of ice edges to high-Arctic seabirds. Acta Congr. Int. Ornithol. 19:9981000.
Bradstreet, M. S. W., and K. J. Finley. 1983. Diet of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in the Canadian High Arctic- Report by LGL Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Bradstreet, M. S. W., D. H. Thomson, and D. B. Fissel. 1987. Zooplankton and bowhead whale feeding in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, 1986. Environmental Studies (Ottawa) 50:1204.
Braund, S. R., and Associates. 1989. North Slope subsistence study: Barrow, 1987, 1988 and 1989: Final technical report. US Dept of Interior, Minerals Management Service, Alaska OCS Region. Technical Report no 149 .
Brodeur, R. D., C. E. Mills, J. E. Overland, G. E. Walters, and J. D. Schumacher. 1999. Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change. Fisheries Oceanography 8:296306.
Brodeur, R. D., H. Sugisaki, and G. L. Jr. Hunt. 2002. Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea: implications for the ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 233:89103.
Bukhtiyarov, Y. A., K. J. Frost, and L. F. Lowry. 1984. New information on foods of the spotted seal (Phoca largha) in the Bering Sea in spring. Pages 5559 in F. H. Fay, and G. A. Fedoseev, editors. SovietAmerican cooperative research on marine mammals. Vol. 1 Pinnipeds. US Dept. of Commerce. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 12, USA.
Burkanov, V. N. 1989. The spotted seal (Phoca largha) in the waters of Kamchatka and its impact on Pacific salmon. Ph.D. thesis. Institute of Evolution, Morphology and Biology of Animals. Moscow, Russia.
Calvert, W., and I. Stirling. 1990. Interactions between polar bears and overwintering walruses in the central Canadian High Arctic. International Conference on Bear Biology and Management 8:351356.
Carey, A. G. 1985. Marine ice fauna: Arctic. Pages 173190 in R. Horner. Sea ice biota. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Carey, A. G., Jr. 1991. Ecology of the North American Arctic continental shelf benthos: a review. Continental Shelf Research 11:865883.
Carey, A. G., Jr., and P. A. Montagna. 1982. Arctic sea ice faunal assemblage: First approach to description and source of the underice meiofauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series 8:18.
Carmack E. C., and R. W. Macdonald. 2002. Oceanography of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: A setting for marine life. Arctic 55(Supp. 1):2945.
Carmack, E., D. Barber, J. Christensen, R. Macdonald, B. Rudels, and E. Sakshaug. In press. Climate variability and physical forcing of the food webs and the carbon budget on panarctic shelves. Progress in Oceanography.
Carroll, G. M., J. C. George, L. F. Lowry, and K. O. Coyle. 1987. Bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) feeding near Point Barrow, Alaska, during the 1985 spring migration. Arctic 40:105110.
Carscadden, J., and B. S. Nakashima. 1997. Abundance and changes in distribution, biology and behavior of capelin in response to cooler waters of the 1990s. Pages 457468 in Forage fishes in marine ecosystems. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the role of forage fishes in marine ecosystems. Alaska Sea Grant College Program Report No 97-01. University of Alaska Fairbank, USA.
Chapskii, K. K. 1938. The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus Fabr.) of the Kara and Barents seas. Trudy Arktichoskogo Instituta 123:770. (Translated from Russian by Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service Translation Series No. 3162. 145 pp.)
Chapskii, K. K. 1940. The ringed seal of western seas of the Soviet Arctic (The morphological characteristic, biology and hunting production). Trudy Arktichoskogo Instituta (Leningrad) 145:172. (Translated from Russian by Fisheries Research Board Canada, 1971, Translation. Series No. 1665, 147pp.)
Clough, L. M., W. G. Jr., J. K. Cochran, and C. Barnes. 1997. Infaunal density, biomass and bioturbation in the sediments of the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research 44:16831704.
Comiso, J. C. 2001. Satellite-observed variability and trend in sea-ice extent, surface temperature, albedo and clouds in the Arctic. Annals in Glaciology 33:457473.
Conlan, K. E., and R. G. Kvitek. 2005. Recolonization of soft-sediment ice scours on an exposed Arctic coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series 286:2142.
Conners, M. E., A. B. Hollowed, and E. Brown. 2002. Retrospective analysis of Bering Sea bottom trawl surveys: regime shift and ecosystem reorganization. Progress in Oceanography 55:209222.
Cota, G. F., S. J. Prinsenberg, E. B. Bennett, J. W. Loder, M. R. Lewis, J. L. Anning, and N. H. F. Watson. 1987. Nutrient fluxes during extended blooms of Arctic ice algae. Journal of Geophysical Research 92:19511962.
Craig, P. C., W. B. Griffiths, L. Haldorson, and H. McElderry. 1985. Distributional patterns of fishes in an Alaskan Arctic lagoon. Polar Biology 4:918.
Cross, W. E. 1982. Under-ice biota at the Pond Inlet ice edge and in adjacent fast ice areas during spring. Arctic 35:1327.
Dahl, T., C. Lydersen, K. M. Kovacs, S. Falk-Petersen, J. Sargent, I. Gjertz, and B. Gulliksen. 2000. Fatty acid composition of the blubber in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Polar Biology 23:401409.
Dauvin, J.-C, and M. Joncourt. 1989. Energy values of marine benthic invertebrates from the western English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 69:589595.
Dayton, P. K. 1990. Polar benthos. Pages 631685 in W. O. Smith Jr., editor. Polar oceanography, Part B: Chemistry, biology and geology. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
Denisenko, N. V., E. Rachor, and S. G. Denisenko. 2003. Benthic fauna of the southern Kara Sea. Pages 213236 in R. Stein, K. Fahl, D. K. Fuetterer, E. M. Galilmov, and O. V. Stepanets, editors. Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Derocher, A. E., N. J. Lunn, and I. Stirling. 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integrative Comparative Biology 44:163176.
Derocher, A. E., Ø. Wiig, and G. Bangjord. 2000. Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears. Polar Biology 23:675578.
Deubel, H. 2000. Struktureigenschaften und Nahrungsbedarf der Zoobenthosgemeinschaften im Bereich des Lomonossowrückes im Arktischen Ozean. Berichte zur Polarforschung 370:1147.
Donaldson, G. M., G. Chapdelaine, and J. D. Andrews. 1995. Predation of thick-billed murres, Uria lomvia, at two breeding colonies by polar bears, Ursus maritimus, and walruses, Odobenus rosmarus. Canadian Field Naturalist 109:112114.
Dunham, J. S., and D. A. Duffus. 2002. Diet of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Marine Mammal Science 18:419427.
Dunton, K. H., E. Reimnitz, and S. Schonberg. 1982. An Arctic kelp community in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Arctic 35:465484.
Dunton, K. H., S. M. Saupe, A. N. Golikov, D. M. Schell, and S. V. Schonberg. 1989. Trophic relationships and isotopic gradients among arctic and subarctic marine fauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series 56:8997.
Dunton, K. H., J. L. Goodall, S. V. Schonberg, J. M. Grebmeier, and D. R. Maidment. 2005. Multi-decadal synthesis of benthic-pelagic coupling in the western Arctic: role of cross-shelf advective processes. Deep-Sea Research II 52:34623477.
Dyurgerov, M. B., and C. L. Carter. 2004. Observational evidence of increases in freshwater inflow to the Arctic Ocean. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 36:117122.
Eicken, H. 1992. The role of sea ice in structuring Antarctic ecosystems. Polar Biology 12:313.
Eicken, H., M. Lensu, M. Leppäranta, W. B. Tucker, III, A. J. Gow, and O. Salmela. 1995. Thickness, structure and properties of level summer multi-year ice in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean. Journal Geophysical Research 100:2269722710.
Fay, F. H. 1982. Ecology and biology of the Pacific walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger. North American Fauna 74:1279.
Feder, H. M., A. S. Naidu, S. C. Jewett, J. M. Hameedi, W. R. Johnson, and T. E. Whitledge. 1994a. The northeastern Chukchi Sea: benthos-environmental interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:171190.
Feder, H. M., N. R. Foster, S. C. Jewett, T. J. Weingartner, and R. Baxter. 1994b. Mollusks in the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. Arctic 47:145163.
Feder, H. M., S. C. Jewett, and A. Blanchard 2005. Southeastern Chukchi Sea (Alaska) epibenthos. Polar Biology 28:402421.
Fedoseev, G. A., and Y. A. Bukhitiyarov. 1972. Food of seals of the Okhotsk Sea (In Russian) Tezisy. Dokl. 5th All-Union Conference on Marine Mammals. Part 1. Makhachkala.
Fenchel, T. 1988. Marine planktonic food chains. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 19:1938.
Finley, K. J., and C. R. Evans. 1983. Summer diet of the bearded seal (Erignatus barbatus) in the Canadian high Arctic. Arctic 36:8289.
Frost, K. L., M. A. Simpkins, R. J. Small, and L. F. Lowry. 2006. Development of diving by harbor seal pups in two regions of Alaska: Use of the water column. Marine Mammal Science 22 :617643.
Fukuchi, M., H. Sasaki, H. Hattori, O. Matsuda, A. Tanimura, N. Handa, and C. P. McRoy. 1993. Temporal variability of particulate flux in the northern Bering Sea. Continental Shelf Research 13:693704.
Giske, J., H. R. Skjoldal, and D. Slagstad. 1998. Ecological modelling for fisheries. Pages 1168 in T. Rødseth, editor. Models for Multispecies Management. Physica Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
Gjertz, I. 1990. Walrus predation of seabirds. Polar Record 26:317.
Gjertz, I., and C. Lydersen. 1986. The ringed seal (Phoca hispida) spring diet in northwestern Spitsbergen: Polar Research 4:53–56.
Gjertz, I., and Ø. Wiig. 1992. Feeding of walrus Odobenus rosmarus in Svalbard. Polar Record 28:5759.
Gjøsaeter, H. 1997. The Barents Sea capelin stock (Mallotus villosus): a brief review. Pages 469484 in Forage fishes in marine ecosystems. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the role of forage fishes in marine ecosystems. Alaska Sea Grant College Program Report No 97-01. University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA.
Gjøsaeter, H., and H. Loeng. 1987. Growth of the Barents Sea capelin, Mallotus villosus, in relation to climate. Environmental Biology of Fishes 20:293300.
Gjøsæter, H., and N. G. Ushakov. 1997. Acoustic estimates of Barents Sea Arctic cod stock (Boreogadus saida). Pages 485504 in Alaska Sea Grant College Program, editor. Forage fishes in marine ecosystems: proceedings of the international symposium on the role of forage fishes in marine ecosystems. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Sea Grant College Program, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
Gordeev, V. V., and V. Rachold. 2004. River input. Pages 3340 in R. Stein and R. W. Macdonald, editors. The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Gordon, J. D. M. 2001. Deep-water fisheries at the Atlantic Frontier. Contintental Shelf Research 21:9871003.
Gradinger, R. 1995. Climate change and biological oceanography of the Arctic Ocean. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London A352:277286.
Gradinger, R. 1999. Integrated abundances and biomass of sympagic meiofauna from Arctic and Antarctic pack ice. Polar Biology 22:169177.
Gradinger, R. R., and M. E. M. Baumann. 1991. Distribution of phytoplankton communities in relation to the large-scale hydrographical regime in the Fram Strait. Marine Biology 111:311321.
Gradinger, R., and B. A. Bluhm. 2005. Susceptibility of sea ice biota to disturbances in the shallow Beaufort Sea. Phase 1: Biological coupling of sea ice with the pelagic and benthic realms. Coastal Marine Institute Annual Report 11:5059.
Graf, G. 1989. Benthic-pelagic coupling in a deep-sea benthic community. Nature 341:427439.
Grainger, E. H., and S. I. C. Hsiao 1990. Trophic relationships of the sea ice meiofauna in Frobisher Bay, Arctic Canada. Polar Biology 10:283292.
Grainger, E. H., A. A. Mohammed, and J. E. Lovrity. 1985. The sea ice fauna of Frobisher Bay, Arctic Canada. Arctic 38:2330.
Grebmeier, J. M. 1993. Studies of pelagic-benthic coupling extended onto the Soviet continental shelf in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. Continental Shelf Research 13:653668.
Grebmeier, J. M., and J. P. Barry. 1991. The influence of oceanographic processes on pelagic-benthic coupling in polar regions: A benthic perspective. Journal of Marine Systems 2:495518.
Grebmeier, J. M., and L. P Cooper. 1995. Influence of the St. Lawrence Island Polynya upon the Bering Sea benthos. Journal of Geophysical Research 100C3:33494460.
Grebmeier, J. M., and K. H. Dunton. 2000. Benthic processes in the northern Bering/Chukchi seas: status and global change. Pages 6171 in H. P. Huntington, editor. Impacts of changes in the sea ice and other environmental parameters in the Arctic. Report of the Marine Mammal Commission Workshop, Girdwood, Alaska 1517 February 2000. Marine Mammal Commission, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Grebmeier, J. M., and N. M. Harrison. 1992. Seabird feeding on benthic amphipods facilitated by gray whale activity in the northern Bering Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 80:125133.
Grebmeier, J. M, C. P. McRoy, and H. M. Feder. 1988. Pelagic-benthic coupling on the shelf of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. I. Food supply source and benthic biomass. Marine Ecology Progress Series 48:5767.
Grebmeier, J. M., H. M. Feder, and C. P. McRoy. 1989. Pelagic-benthic coupling on the shelf of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. II. Benthic community structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series 51:253268.
Griffiths, W. B., D. H. Thomson, and G. E. Johnson. 1987. Zooplankton and hydroacoustics. in W. J. Richardson, editor. Importance of the eastern Beaufort Sea for feeding bowhead whales, 19851986. OCS Study MMS 87-0037. Report from LGL ecological Research Assococation Inc. Bryan Texas. Rep No NTIS PB88-150271. USA.
Hare, S. R., and N. J. Mantua. 2000. Emperical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in Pacific North America. Progress in Oceanography 47:103145.
Hargrave, B. 2004. North Water Polynya. Pages 103105 in R. Stein and R.W. Macdonald, editors. The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean. Springer Berlin, Germany.
Hazard, K. W., and L. F. Lowry. 1984. Benthic prey in a Greenland whale from the Northern Bering Sea. Arctic 37:166–168.
HeideJørgensen, M. P., and J. Teilman. 1994. Growth, reproduction, age structure and feeding habits of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland waters. Meddelelser om Grønland Bioscience 39:195212.
Helle, K., and M. Pennington. 1999. The relation of the spatial distribution of early juvenile cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Barents Sea to zooplankton density and water flux during the period 19781984. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56:1527.
Highsmith, R. C., and K. O. Coyle. 1990. High productivity of northern Bering Sea benthic amphipods. Nature 344:862864.
Highsmith, R. C., and K. O. Coyle. 1992. Productivity of arctic amphipods relative to gray whale energy requirements. Marine Ecology Progress Series 83:141151.
Highsmith, R. C., K. O. Coyle, B. A. Bluhm, and B. Konar. In press. Gray Whales in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. In J. Estes, D. P. DeMaster, D. F. Doak, T. M. Williams, and R.L. Brownell, editors. Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems. UC Press.
Hobson K. A., A. Fisk, N. Karnovsky, M. Holst, J.-M. Gagnon, and M. Fortier. 2002. A stable isotope (δ 13C, δ 15N) model for the north water food web: implications for evaluating trophodynamics and the flow of energy and contaminants. Deep Sea Research II 49:51315150.
Hop, H., M. Poltermann, O. J. Lønne, S. Falk-Petersen, R. Korsnes, and W. P. Budgell. 2000. Ice amphipod distribution relative to ice density and underice topography in the northern Barents Sea. Polar Biology 23:357367.
Høpner Petersen, G., and M. A. Curtis 1980. Differences in energy flow through major components of subarctic, temperate and tropical marine shelf ecosystems. Dana 1:5364.
Horner, R., and G. C. Schrader. 1982. Relative contribution of ice algae, phytoplankton, and benthic microalgae to primary production in nearshore regions of the Beaufort Sea. Arctic 35:485503.
Huettmann, F. 2005. Databases and science-based management in the context of wildlife and habitat: towards a certified ISO standard for objective decision-making for the global community by using the internet. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:466472.
Hunt, G. L., P. Stabeno, G. Walters, E. Sinclair, R. D. Brodeur, J. M. Napp, and N. A. Bond. 2002. Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem. Deep-Sea Research II 49:58215853.
Hunter, J. G. 1968. Fishes and fisheries. Pages 360378 in C. S. Beals, and D. A. Shenstone, editors. Science, history and Hudson Bay, vol 1. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Canada.
Iida, T., S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga. 2002. Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea, 19982001. Progress in Oceanography 55:165176.
Iken, K., B. A. Bluhm, and R. Gradinger. 2005. Food web structure in the high Arctic Canada Basin: evidence from δ 13C and δ 15N analysis. Polar Biology 28:238249.
Ingvaldsen, R., H. Loeng, and L. Asplin. 2002. Variability in the Atlantic inflow to the Barents Sea based on a one-year time series from moored current meters. Continental Shelf Research 22:505–519.
Jakobsson, M., A. Grantz, Y. Kristoffersen, and R. Macnab. 2004. The Arctic Ocean; boundary conditions and background information; bathymetry and physiography of the Arctic Ocean and its constituent seas. Pages 16 in R. Stein, and R. W. Macdonald, editors. The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Johnson, M. L., C. H. Fiscus, B. T. Stenson, and M. L. Barbour. 1966. Marine mammals. Pages 877924 in N. J. Wilimovsky and J. N. Wolfe, editors. Environment of the Cape Thompson region, Alaska. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
Jorgenson, M. T., and J. Brown 2005. Classification of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast and estimation of carbon and sediment inputs from coastal erosion. Geo-Marine Letters 25:6980.
Jørgensen, L. L., and B. Gulliksen. 2001. Rocky bottom fauna in arctic Kongsfjord (Svalbard) studied by means of suction sampling and photography. Polar Biology 24:113121.
Kaschner, K. 2004. Modeling and mapping resource overlap between marine mammals and fisheries on a global scale. PhD thesis. Marine Mammal Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada.
Kendall, M. A., R. M. Warwick, and P. J. Somerfield. 1997. Species size distributions in arctic benthic communities. Polar Biology 17:389392.
Kern, J. C., and A. G. Carey, Jr. 1983. The faunal assemblage inhabiting seasonal sea ice in the nearshore Arctic Ocean with emphasis on copepods. Marine Ecology Progress Series 10:159167.
Kim, S. L., and J. S. Oliver. 1989. Swarming benthic crustaceans in the Bering and Chukchi seas and their relation to geographic patterns in gray whale feeding. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:1531 1542.
Kinsley, M. C. S. 2002. Status of the belugas of the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:239258.
Koski, W. R., R. A. Davis, and K. J. Finley 2002. Distribution and abundance of Canadian high Arctic belugas. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:87126.
Kröncke, I. 1998. Macrofauna communities in the Amundsen Basin, at the Morris Jesup Rise and at the Yermak Plateau (Eurasian Arctic Ocean). Polar Biology 19:383392.
Kuhn, C. E., B. I. McDonald, S. A. Shaffer, J. Barnes, D. E. Crocker, J. Burns, Jennifer, D. P. Costa. 2006. Diving physiology and winter foraging behavior of a juvenile leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx). Polar Biology 29:303307.
Lambertsen, R. H., K. J. Rasmussen, W. C. Lancaster, R. J. Hintz. 2005. Functional morphology of the mouth of the bowhead whale and its implications for conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 86:342352.
Lavoie, D., K. Denman, and C. Michel. 2005. Modeling ice algal growth and decline in a seasonally ice-covered region of the Arctic (Resolute Passage, Canadian Archipelago), Journal of Geophysical Research 110 doi:10.1029/2005JC002922.
Le Boeuf, B. J., H. Perez-Cortez, J. Urban, B. R. Mate, and F. U. Ollervides. 2000. High gray whale mortality and low recruitment in 1999: potential causes and implications. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2:8599.
Lee, R. F., W. Hagen, and G. Kattner. 2006. Lipid storage in marine zooplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series 307:273306.
Legendre, L., S. F. Ackley, G. S. Dieckmann, B. Gulliksen, R. Horner, T. Hoshiai, I. A. Melnikov, W. A. Reeburgh, M. Spindler, and C. W. Sullivan. 1992. Ecology of sea ice biota. 2. Global significance. Polar Biology 12:429444.
Lindsay, R. W., and J. Zhang. 2005. The thinning of Arctic sea ice, 19882003: Have we passed a tipping point? Journal of Climate 18:48794894.
Lischka, S., K. Knickmeier, and W. Hagen 2001: Mesozooplankton communities during summer 1993 and autumn 1995 in the Arctic Laptev Sea. Polar Biology 24:186199.
Lizotte, M. P. 2003. The microbiology in sea ice. Pages 184210 in D. N. Thomas, and G. S. Dieckmann, editors. Sea Ice: An Introduction to its Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Geology. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, UK.
Loeng, H., V. Ozhigin, and B. Ådlandsvik. 1997. Water fluxes through the Barents sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 54:310317.
Lønne, O. J., and G. W. Gabrielsen. 1992. Summer diet of seabirds feeding in sea-ice-covered waters near Svalbard. Polar Biology 12:685692.
Lønne, O. J., and B. Gulliksen. 1989. Size, age and diet of polar cod, Boreogadus saida (Lepechin 1773), in ice covered waters. Polar Biology 9:187191.
Lovvorn, J. R., S. E. Richman, J. M. Grebmeier, and L. W. Cooper 2003. Diet and body condition of spectacled eiders wintering in pack ice of the Bering Sea. Polar Biology 26:259267.
Lowry, L. 1993. Foods and feeding ecology. Pages 201238. in J. J. Burns, J. J. Montague, and C. J. Cowles, editors. Special Publication No. 2. The Bowhead whale. Society for Marine Mammology, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Lowry , L. F., and F. H. Fay. 1984 . Seal eating by walruses in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Polar Biology 3:1118.
Lowry, L. F., and K. J. Frost. 1981. Distribution, growth, and foods of Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Canadian Field Naturalist 95:186191.
MacKenzie, B. R., J. Alheit, D. J. Conley, P. Holm, and C. C. Kinze. 2002. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:173190.
Makarevich, P. R., N. V. Druzhkov, V. V. Larionov, and E. I. Drozhkova. 2003. The freshwater phytoplankton biomass and its role in the formation of a highly productive zone on the Ob-Yenesei shallows (southern Kara Sea). Pages 185194 in R. Stein, K. Fahl, D. K. Fuetterer, E. M. Galilmov, and O. V. Stepanets, editors. Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Mansfield, A. W., T. G. Smith, and B. Beck. 1975. The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, in Eastern Canadian waters. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32:10411046.
McLaren, I. A. 1958. The biology of the ringed seal seals (Phoca hispida Schreber) in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Ms. Rep. (Biology) 653. 146 pp.
McLaren, A. S., R. H. Bourke, J. E. Walsh, and R. L. Weaver. 1994. Variability of sea-ice thickness over the north pole from 1958 to 1992. Geophysical Monographs 85:363 371.
Mayer, M., and D. Piepenburg. 1996. Epibenthic community patterns on the continental slope off East Greenland at 75° N. Marine Ecology Progress Series 143:151164.
Michel C., T. G. Nielsen, C. Nozais, and M. Gosselin. 2002. Significance of sedimentation and grazing by ice micro- and meiofauna for carbon cycling in annual sea ice (northern Baffin Bay). Aquatic Microbial Ecology 30:5768.
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. M. Oberhuber. 1994. The 197677 climate shift of the Pacific Ocean. Oceanography 7:2126.
Moore, S. E., K. E. W. Shelden, L. K. Litzky, B. A. Mahoney, and D. J. Rugh. 2000a. Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, habitat associations in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Fisheries Review 62:6080.
Moore, S. E., D. P. DeMaster, and P. K. Dayton 2000b. Cetacean habitat selection in the Alaskan Arctic during summer and autumn. Arctic 53:432447.
Moore, S. E., J. R. Urban, W. L. Perryman, F. Gulland, H. M. Perez-Cortez, P. R. Wade, Rojas-Bracho, and T. Rowles. 2001. Are gray whales hitting “K” hard? Marine Mammal Science 17:954958.
Moore, S. E., J. M. Grebmeier, and J. R. Davies. 2003. Gray whale distribution relative to forage habitat in the northern Bering Sea: current conditions and retrospective summary. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:734742.
Moore, S. E. submitted. Gray whales occurrence and forage near Kodiak, Alaska; submitted to Marine Mammal Science.
Naidu, A. S., R. S. Scalan, H. M. Feder, J. J. Goering, M. J. Hameedi, P. L. Parker, E. W. Behrens, M. E. Caughey, and S. C. Jewett. 1993. Stable organic carbon isotopes in sediments of the north Bering-south Chukchi Seas, Alaskan-Soviet Arctic Shelf. Continental Shelf Research 13:669691.
Nakashima, B. S., and G. A. Borstad. 1997. Abundance and behavior of capelin schools (Mallotus villosus) from aerial surveys. Pages 383394 in Forage fishes in marine ecosystems. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the role of forage fishes in marine ecosystems. Alaska Sea Grant College Program Report No 97-01. University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA.
Nansen, F. 1897. In Nacht und Eis. Brockhaus, Leipzig.
Noethig, E.-M., Y. Okolodkov, V. V. Larionov, and P. R. Makarevich. 2003. Phytoplankton distribution in the inner Kara Sea: a comparison of three summer investigations. Pages 163184 in R. Stein, K. Fahl, D. K. Fuetterer, E. M. Galilmov, and O. V. Stepanets, editors. Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Nordøy, E. S., W. Sormo, and A. S. Blix. 1995. Food consumption of the northeast Atlantic stock of harp seals. Pages 255260 in A. S. Blix, L. Walløe, and Ø. Ultang, editors. Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Nozais, C., M. Gosselin, C. Michel, and G. Tita. 2001. Abundance, biomass, composition and grazing impact of the sea-ice meiofauna in the North Water, northern Baffin Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 217:235250.
Olsen, M. A., A. S. Blix, T. H. Utsi, W. Sørmo, and S. D. Mathiesen. 2000. Chitinolytic bacteria in the minke whale forestomach. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 46:8594.
Ostrom, P. H., J. Lien, and S. A. Macko. 1993. Evaluation of the diet of Sowerby's beaked whale, Mesoplodon bidens, based on isotopic comparisons among northwestern Atlantic cetaceans. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:858861.
Paul, A. J., J. M. Paul, and R. L. Smith. 1998. Seasonal changes in whole-body energy content and estimated consumption rates of age 0 walleye Pollock from Prince William Sound. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 47:251259.
Pershing, A. J., C. H. Greene, C. Hannah, D. Sameoto, E. Head, D. G. Mountain, J. W. Jossi, M. C. Benfield, P. C. Reid, and T. G. Durbin. 2001. Oceanographic responses to climate in the northwest Atlantic. Oceanography 14:7682.
Peterson, B. J., R. M. Holmes, J. W. McClelland, C. J. Vorosmarty, R. B. Lammers, A. I. Shiklomanov, I. A. Shiklomanov, and S. Rahmstorf. 2002. Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean 2002. Science 298:21712173.
Petryashov, V. V., B. I. Sirenko, A. A. Golikov, A. V. Novozhilov, E. Rachor, D. Piepenburg, and M. K. Schmid. 1999. Marcobenthos distribution in the Laptev Sea in relation to hydrology. Pages 169180 in H. Kassens, H. A. Bauch, I. Dmitrenko, H. Eicken, H.-W. Dubberten, M. Melles, J. Thiede, and L. Timokhov, editors. Land-ocean systems in the Siberian Arctic: dynamics and history. Springer Verlage, Berlin, Germany.
Piatkowski, U., and K. Wieland. 1993. The Boreoatlantic gonate squid Gonatus fabricii: distribution and size off west Greenland in summer 1989 and in summer and autumn 1990. Aquatic Living Resources 6:109114.
Piepenburg, D. 2000. Arctic brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Oceanography and Marine Biology 38:189256.
Piepenburg, D., and M. K. Schmid. 1996a. Distribution, abundance, biomass, and mineralization potential of the epibenthic megafauna of the northeast Greenland shelf. Marine Biology 125:321332.
Piepenburg, D., and M. K. Schmid. 1996b. Brittle star fauna (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) of the Arctic northwestern Barents Sea: Composition, abundance, biomass and spatial distribution. Polar Biology 16:383392.
Piepenburg, D., T. H. Blackburn, C. F. von Dorrien, J. Gutt, P. O. J. Hall, S. Hulth, M. A. Kendall, K. W. Opalinski, E. Rachor, and M. K. Schmid. 1995. Partitioning of benthic community respiration in the Arctic (Northwestern Barents Sea). Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:199213.
Piepenburg, D., W. G. Ambrose, Jr., A. Brandt, P. E. Renaud, M. J. Ahrens, and P. Jensen. 1997. Benthic community patterns reflect water column processes in the Northeast Water Polynya (Greenland). Journal of Marine Systems 10:467482.
Piepenburg D, N. V. Chernova, C. von Dorrien, J. Gutt, A. V. Neyelov, E. Rachor, L. Saldanha, and M. K. Schmid. 1996. Megabenthic communities in the waters around Svalbard. Polar Biology 16:431446.
Piepenburg, D., W. G. Ambrose, A. Brandt, P. E. Renaud, M. J. Ahrens, and P. Jensen. 1997. Benthic community patterns reflect water column processes in the Northeast Water polynya (Greenland). Journal of Marine Systems 10:467482.
Piepenburg, D., A. Brandt, K.v. Juterzenka, M. Mayer, K. Schnack, D. Seiler, U. Witte, and M. Spindler. 2001. Patterns and determinants of the distribution and structure of benthic faunal assemblages in the northern North Atlantic. Pages 179198 in P. Schäfer, W. Ritzrau, M. Schlüter, and T. Thiede, editors. The Northern North Atlantic: A changing environment. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Poltermann, M. 1998. Abundance, biomass and small-scale distribution of cryopelagic amphipods in the Franz Josef Land area (Arctic). Polar Biology 20:134138.
Poltermann, M. 2000. Growth, production and productivity of the Arctic sympagic amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 193:109116.
Purcell, J. E. 2005. Climate effects on formation of jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. Journal of the Marine Biological Assocociation of the U.K. 85:461476.
Quillfeldt C. H. v., W. G. Ambrose, Jr., and L. M. Clough. 2003. High number of diatom species in first-year ice from the Chukchi Sea. Polar Biology 26:808816.
Raskoff, K. A., J. E. Purcell, and R. R. Hopcroft. 2005. Gelatinous zooplankton of the Arctic Ocean: in situ observations. Polar Biology 28:207217.
Reigstad, M., P. Wassmann, C. W. Riser, S. Oegarden, and F. Rey. 2002. Variations in hydrography, nutrients and chlorophyll a in the marginal ice-zone and the central Barents Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 38:929.
Richman, S. E., and J. R. Lovvorn. 2003. Effects of clam species dominance on nutrient and energy acquisition by spectacled eiders in the Bering Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 261 :283297.
Richman, S. E., and J. R. Lovvorn. 2004. Relative foraging value to lesser scaup ducks of native and exotic clams from San Francisco Bay. Ecological Applications 14:12171231.
Rigor, I. G., J. M. Wallace, and R. L. Colony 2002. Response of sea-ice to the Arctic Oscillation. Journal of Climate 15:26482663.
Robins, C. R., R. M. Bailey, C. E. Bond, J. R. Brooker, E. A. Lachner, R. N. Lea, and W. B. Scott. 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada (fourth edition). American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 12:1170.
Robineau B., L. Legendre, J.-C. Therriault, L. Fortier, G. Rosenberg, and S. Demers. 1994. Ultra-algae (<5 µm) in the ice, at the icewater interface and in the under-ice water column (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada). Marine Ecology Progress Series 115:169180.
Rothrock, D., Y. Yu, and G. Maykut. 1999. The thinning of the Arctic ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters 26:34693472.
Sakshaug, E., and H. R. Skjodal. 1989. Life at the ice edge. Ambio 18:6067.
Sejr, M. K., K. T. Jensen, S. Rysgaard. 2000. Macrozoobenthic community structure in a high-arctic East Greenland fjord. Polar Biology 23:792801.
Serreze, M. C., J. A. Maslanik, T. A. Scambos, F. Fetterer, J. Stroeve, K. Knowles, C. Fowler, S. Drobot, R. G. Barry, and T. M. Haran. 2003. A record minimum arctic sea ice extent and area in 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 30:doi:10.1029/2002GL016406.
Sinclair, E., T. Loughlin, and W. Pearcy. 1994. Prey selection by northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in the eastern Bering Sea. Fishery Bulletin 92:144156,
Sirenko, B. I. 1998. Marine fauna of the Arctic (after the expedition of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences). Russian Journal ofMarine Biology 24:353364.
Sirenko, B. I., and V. M. Koltun. 1992. Characteristics on benthic biocenoses of the Chukchi and Bering Seas. Pages 251261 in P. A. Nagel, editor. Results of the Third Joint US-USSR Bering & Chukchi Seas Expedition (BERPAC). Summer 1988. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C., USA.
Skjoldal, H. R., H. Gjoesaeter, and H. Loeng. 1992. The Barents Sea ecosystem in the 1980s: Ocean climate, plankton, and capelin growth. ICES marine science symposia. Copenhagen, Denmark.
Slubowska, M. A., N. Koç, T. L . Rasmussen, and D. Klitgaard-Kristensen. 2005. Changes in the flow of Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean since the last deglaciation: Evidence from the northern Svalbard continental margin, 80°N, Paleoceanography2:doi:10.1029/2005PA001141.
Smith, S. L., and S. B. Schnack-Schiel. 1990. Polar zooplankton. Pages 427598 in W. O. Jr. Smith, editor. Polar Oceanography. San Diego, Academic Press. USA.
Smith, T. G. 1980. Polar bear predation of ringed and bearded seals in the land-fast ice habitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58:22012209.
Smith, T. G. 1985. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus, as predators of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Field Naturalist 99:22012209.
Smith, T. G., and B. Sjare. 1990. Predation of belugas and narwhals by polar bears in the nearshore areas of the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic 43:99102.
Smith, W. O., Jr., M. E. M. Baumann, D. L. Wilson, and L. Aletsee. 1987. Phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the marginal ice zone of the Fram Strait during summer 1984. Journal of Geophysical Research 92:67776786.
Smith, W. O., Jr., and E. Sakshaug. 1990. Polar phytoplankton. Pages 477525 in W. O. Jr. Smith, editor. Polar oceanography. Part B. Chemistry, biology and geology. San Diego, Academic Press. USA.
Smith, W. O., Jr., M. Gosselin, L. Legendre, D. Wallace, K. Daly, and G. Kattner. 1997. New production in the Northeast Water polynya. Journal of Marine Systems 10:199209.
Springer, A., C. P. McRoy, and M. Flint. 1996. The Bering Sea Green Belt: shelf-edge processes and ecosystem production. Fisheries Oceanography 5:205223.
Starmans, A., J. Gutt, and W. E. Arntz. 1999. Mega-epibenthic communities in Arctic and Antarctic shelf areas. Marine Biology 135:269280.
Stein, D. L., J. D. Felley, and M. Vecchione. 2005. ROV observations of benthic fishes in the Northwind and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean. Polar Biology 28:232–237.
Stein, R., C. Schubert, R. W. Macdonald, K. Fahl, H. R. Harvey, and D. Weiel. 2004. The central Arctic Ocean: distribution, sources, variability and burial of organic carbon. Pages 295314 in R. Stein, and R. W. Macdonald, editors. The Arctic Ocean organic carbon cycle present and past. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Stempniewicz, L. 1993. The polar bear Ursus maritimus feeding in a seabird colony in Frans Josef Land. Polar Research 12:3336.
Stirling, I., and W. R. Archibald. 1977. Aspects of predation of seals by polar bears. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:11261129.
Stirling, I., and A. E. Derocher. 1993. Possible impacts of climatic warming on polar bears. Arctic 46:240245.
Stirling, O., and N. A. Øritsland. 1995. Relationships between estimates of ringed seal (Phocahispida) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations in the Canadian Arctic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:25942612.
Stockwell, D. A., T. E. Whitledge, S. I. Zeeman, K. O. Coyle, J. M. Napp, R. D. Brodeur, A. I. Pinchuk and G. L. Hunt, Jr. 2001. Anomalous conditions in the southeastern Bering Sea, 1997: nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton. Fisheries Oceanography 10:99116.
Stroeve, J., M. C. Serreze, F. Fetterer, T. Arbetter, W. Meier, J. Maslanik, and K. Knowles. 2005. Tracking the Arctic's shrinking ice cover; another extreme September sea ice minimum in 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 32:doi:10.1029/2004GL021810.
Telang, S. A., R. Pocklington, A. S. Naidu, E. A. Romankevich, I. I. Gitelson, and M. I. Gladyshev. 1990. Carbon and mineral transport in major North American, Russian arctic, and Siberian rivers: the St. Lawrence, the Mackenzie, the Yukon, the arctic Alaskan rivers, the arctic basin rivers in the Soviet Union, and the Yenisei. Pages 75104 in E. T. Degens, S. Kempe, and J. Richey, editors. Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers. SCOPE Report 42, John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Thingstad, T. F., and I. Martinussen. 1991. Are bacteria active in the cold pelagic ecosystem of the Barents Sea? Polar Research 10:255266.
Thomas, D. N., and G. S. Dieckmann, editors. 2003. Sea Ice. An introduction to its physics, chemistry, biology and geology. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
Tomlin, A. G. 1957. Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Vol. 9. Cetacea. (Translated by Israel Program, Sci. Transl.), Jerusalem, 1967, p. 717.
Trenberth, K. E. 1990. Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 71:988993.
Udalov, A. A., I. V. Burkovskii, V. O. Mokievskii, A. P. Stolyarov, Y. A. Mazei, M. A. Saburova, M .V. Chertoprud, E. S. Chertoprud, V. V. Il'inskii, M. Y. Kolobov, and S. A. Ponomarev. 2004. Changes in the general characteristics of micro-, meio-, and macrobenthos along the salinity gradient in the White Sea estuary. Oceanology 44:514525.
Vibe, C. 1950. The marine mammals and the marine fauna in the Thule District (Northwest Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 19391941. Meddelelser om Grønland 150:1115.
Walsh, J. J., C. P. McRoy, L. K. Coachman, J. J. Goering, J. J. Nihoul, T. E. Whitledge, T. H. Blackburn, P. L. Parker, C. D. Wirick, P. G. Shuert, J. M. Grebmeier, A. M. Springer, R. D. Tripp, D. A. Hansell, S. Djenidi, E. Deleersnijder, K. Henriksen, B. A. Lund, P. Andersen, F. E. Mueller-Karger, and K. Dean. 1989. Carbon and nitrogen cycling within the Bering/Chukchi Seas: Source regions for organic matter affecting AOU demands of the Arctic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography 22:277–359.
Wassmann, P. 2004. Particulate organic carbon flux to the seafloor of the Arctic Ocean: Quantity, seasonality and processes. Pages 131137 in R. Stein, and R. W. Macdonald, editors. The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Wassmann, P., and D. Slagstad. 1993. Seasonal and annual dynamics of particulate carbon flux in the Barents Sea. Polar Biology 13:363372.
Wassmann P., E. Bauerfeind, M. Fortier, M. Fukuchi, B. Hargrave, B. Moran, T. Noji, E. M. Noethig, K. Olli, R. Peinert, H. Sasaki, and V. P. Shevchenko. 2004. Particulate organic carbon flux to the Arctic Ocean sea floor. Pages 101138 in R. Stein and R.W. Macdonald, editors. The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Weissenberger, J., G. Dieckmann, R. Gradinger, and M. Spindler. 1992. Sea ice: A cast technique to examine and analyze brine pockets and channel structure. Limnology and Oceanography 37:179183.
Welch, H. E., and K. M. Bergmann. 1990. Does the clam Mya truncata regenerate its siphon after predation by walrus? An experimental approach. Arctic 43:157158.
Werner, I., and R. Gradinger. 2002. Under-ice amphipods in the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait (Arctic): environmental controls and seasonal patterns below the pack ice. Marine Biology 140:317326.
Weslawski, J. M., L. Hacquebord, and L. Stempniewicz 2000. Greenland whales and walruses in the Svalbard food web before and after exploitation. Oceanologia 42:3756.
Wiig, O., A. E. Derocher, and S. E. Belikov. 1999. Ringed seal (Phoca hispida) breeding in the drifting pack ice of the Barents Sea. Marine Mammal Science 15:595598.
Willett, H. C. 1950. Temperature trends of the past century. Royal Meteorological Society Centenary Proceeding, London: 195206.
Winters, G. H., and J. E. Carscadden. 1978. Review of capelin ecology and estimation of surplus yield from predator dynamics. ICNAF Research Bulletin 13:2130.
Wü rsig, B. E. M. Dorsey, W. J. Richardson, and R. S. Wells. 1989. Feeding, aerial and play behaviour of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, summering in the Beaufort Sea. Aquatic Mammals 15:2737.
Zenkevitch, L. 1963. Biology of the seas of the USSR. Allen & Unwin, London:1955
Zheng, J., and G. H. Kruse. 2000. Recruitment patterns of Alaskan crabs in relation to decadal shifts in climate and physical oceanography. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:438451.