Appendix C. Explanation of Mantel's tests.
A Mantel's test is a linear regression between dissimilarity matrices that describe the ecological distance between sample values. Mantel's tests are non-parametric with tests for significance done through randomization of the data by permutation of the distance matrices. To create the distance matrices, all explanatory variables were first rescaled and normalized to Z-scores so that all variables had common units. The dissimilarity matrices for explanatory variables and space (X, Y location) were computed using the Euclidean distances between values.