Ecological Archives A022-031-A1

M. C. Ricker, S. W. Donohue, M. H. Stolt, and M. S. Zavada. 2012. Development and application of multi-proxy indices of land use change for riparian soils in southern New England, USA. Ecological Applications 22:487–501.

Appendix A. Photographs of representative riparian study sites in southern New England, USA. All of the riparian systems studied occurred on outwash or glacio-fluvial landscapes with relatively flat topography (0–3% slope). Most riparian areas had a red maple (Acer rubrum L.) overstory with variable understory characteristics.

Fig. A1. A typical riparian zone in a forested watershed (1st order stream in Massachusetts, ≥ 85% forest cover). The most commonly observed emergent vegetation was cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), jewel weed (Impatiens capensis), and various sedge species (Carex spp.). Photo credits: Matthew Ricker

Fig. A2. A typical riparian zone from a mixed land use watershed (2nd order stream in Rhode Island, < 30% impervious surfaces, < 25% agricultural land use, and < 85% forest cover). Channels tended to be wider and slightly incised compared to those in forested watersheds. Both shrub and emergent vegetation were typically present in the understory. Photo credit: Matthew Ricker

Fig. A3. A typical riparian zone in an agricultural watershed (2nd order stream in Connecticut, ≥ 25% agricultural land use). Stream channels were typically wider and bed materials finer grained than those in forested basins. Photo credit: Matthew Ricker

Fig. A4. A typical riparian zone in an urban-suburban setting (2nd order stream in Rhode Island, ≥ 30% impervious surfaces). Channels in the urban watersheds were the most incised of the various settings and streambeds were typically dominated by sandy materials. Invasive species such as burning bush (Euonymus alata), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), and common reed (Phragmites australis) were also more common in the forest understory. Photo credit: Kelly Addy

Fig. A5. Urban streambed (2nd order stream in Rhode Island) with incised cut banks, widened channel, and abundant human artifacts (glass and plastic bottles, aluminum cans, metal, asphalt, brick). Similar features were observed in most urban riparian zones of the region. Photo credit: Kelly Addy

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