Ecological Archives E083-014-A1

Grant Canterbury. 2002. Metabolic adaptation and climatic constraints on winter bird distribution. Ecology 83:946–957.

Appendix A. Species abbreviations, life history traits, lower limiting temperatures at range boundaries (TRB), and primary physiological parameters for North American passerines. Physiological parameters were measured under winter conditions at night, and include body mass in g (M), basal metabolic rate (BMR), thermal conductance (COND), and lower critical temperature in °C (TLC).

Species
Code Migration Diet TRB§ M BMR|| COND TLC Study Site†† Reference

American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis)
AMGO M N -23.3 14.5 67.4 2.32 19.5 MI Dawson and Carey 1976
American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea)
ATSP M N -23.3 19.2 62.8 --- --- SD Swanson 1993
Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia)
BAWW M I -1.1 8.2 22.6 0.97 29.6 FL Yarbrough 1971
Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)
BCCH R N -32.5* 13.1 79.7 1.85 14.4 AK Grossman and West 1977
Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)
CHSP M N -15 11.9 34.5 1.67 25.9 FL Yarbrough 1971
Common Redpoll ( Carduelis flammea)
CORE I N -32.5* 15.6 73.6 1.83 11.3 AK Pohl and West 1973
          14.7 62 2.07 15 Nor. Reinertsen and Haftorn 1986
          11.3 50.5 2.17 10 Nor. Steen 1958
Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
COYE M I -6.7 10.6 30.9 0.93 32 FL Yarbrough 1971
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis hyemalis)
SCJU M N -22.8* 21 65.5 --- --- SD Swanson 1993
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis oreganus)
ORJU M N -20.6 19.4 61.2 2.16 25.8 OR Swanson 1991
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)
EAPH M I -3.9 21.6 61.6 2.57 26.2 FL Yarbrough 1971
Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina)
EVGR I N -32.5* 55.1 138.3 5.51 16 MI Dawson and Tordoff 1959
Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca)
FOSP M N -15 30.7 66.9 2.11 19 FL Yarbrough 1971
Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)
GRSP M N -6.7 13.8 31.9 1.99 25 FL Yarbrough 1971
Harris’ Sparrow (Zonotrichia querula)
HASP M N -15 33.3 80.6 3.07 20 KS Yarbrough 1971
House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)
HOFI R N -17.8 22.6 72.6 3.6 17.8 MI Root et al. 1991
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)
HOSP R N -32.5* 27.3 74 3.28 11.5 Nor. Steen 1958
Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
CARD R N -20.6 43.8g 132.4 4.53 10 MI Root 1990
Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata)
OCWA M I -12.2 9.3 26.6 1.15 25 FL Yarbrough 1971
Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmarum)
PAWA M I 1.7 9.8 27.9 1.16 25.5 FL Yarbrough 1971
Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus)
PISI I N -28.9 13.8 62.4 2.62 15.5 MI Dawson and Carey 1976
Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus)
PIWA M I -3.9 12 32.4 1.73 23.9 FL Yarbrough 1971
Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)
RECR I N -28.9 29.4 91.1 3.53 15 MI Dawson and Tordoff 1964
Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)
SVSP M N -9.4 15.9 40.2 1.94 21 FL Yarbrough 1971
Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)
SOSP M N -23.3 19.1 45.5 2.46 23 FL Yarbrough 1971
Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)
SWSP M N -9.4 14.9 38.1 2.07 25 FL Yarbrough 1971
Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)
VESP M N -12.2 21.5 49 2.37 22.9 FL Yarbrough 1971
White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)
WCSP M N -15 28.6 68.7 3.58 22.7 WA King 1964
White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera)
WWCR I N -28.9 29.8 83.4 3.28 14 MI Dawson and Tordoff 1964
Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata)
YRWA M N -9.4 11.5 33.8 1.76 23 FL Yarbrough 1971

Migratory Status: R = Resident; I = Irruptive; M = Partial or Complete Migrant.

Diet: I = Insectivorous; N = Non-insectivorous or partially insectivorous.

§ January mean minimum temperature (°C) at range boundary (the coldest CBC site in Table 1 that was occupied by the species in at least half of the years in which counts were conducted).

|| Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is given in mL O2/h.

Thermal conductance (COND) is given in mL O2· h-1·°C-1.

†† Study sites from which experimental birds were obtained include Alaska (AK), Florida (FL), Kansas (KS), Michigan (MI), Oregon (OR), South Dakota (SD), Washington (WA), and Norway (Nor.).

‡‡ Body mass not given by Root (1990). Number based on Amadon (1943).


Literature cited

Amadon, D. 1943. Bird weights and egg weights. Auk 60:221--234.

Dawson, W. R., and C. Carey. 1976. Seasonal acclimatization to temperature in cardueline finches. Journal of Comparative Physiology 112:317--333.

Dawson, W. R., and H. B. Tordoff. 1959. Relation of oxygen consumption to temperature in the Evening Grosbeak. Condor 61:388--396.

Dawson, W. R., and H. B. Tordoff. 1964. Relation of oxygen consumption to temperature in the Red and White-winged Crossbills. Auk 81:26--35.

Grossman, A. F., and G. C. West. 1977. Metabolic rate and temperature regulation of winter acclimatized Black-capped Chickadees Parus atricapillus of interior Alaska. Ornis Scandinavica 8: 127--138.

King, J. R. 1964. Oxygen consumption and body temperature in relation to ambient temperature in the White-crowned Sparrow. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 12:13--24.

Pohl, H., and G. C. West. 1973. Daily and seasonal variation in metabolic response to cold during rest and forced exercise in the Common Redpoll. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 45A:851--867.

Reinertsen, R. E., and S. Haftorn. 1986. Different metabolic strategies of northern birds for nocturnal survival. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 156:655--663.

Root, T. 1990. Positive correlation between range size and body size: a possible mechanism. Pages 817--825 in Proceedings of the 20th International Ornithological Congress.

Root, T. L., T. P. O'Connor, and W. R. Dawson. 1991. Standard metabolic level and insulative characteristics of eastern House Finches, Carpodacus mexicanus (Müller). Physiological Zoology 64:1279--1295.

Steen, J. 1958. Climatic adaptation in some small northern birds. Ecology 39:625--629.

Swanson, D. L. 1991. Seasonal adjustments in metabolism and insulation in the Dark-eyed Junco. Condor 93:538--545.

Swanson, D. L. 1993. Cold tolerance and thermogenic capacity in Dark-eyed Juncos in winter: geographic variation and comparison with American Tree Sparrows. Journal of Thermal Biology 18:275--281.

Yarbrough, C. G. 1971. The influence of distribution and ecology on the thermoregulation of small birds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 39A:235--266.



[Back to E083-014]