Appendix B. A table showing the effect of environmental covariates on the spatial and temporal variation in age-specific survival rates. The base model used for the covariate analysis is juv_col (t+s) juv_sat (s) yrl (s) ad_col (.) ad_sat (.) (s') (see Table 2) . Site-specific covariates are elevation (elev), aspect (asp), slope (slope), and average group size (size), and temporal covariates are length of the growing season (grw.ssn), duration of permanent snow cover (snw.cvr), annual snow fall (snw.fall), annual precipitation (prep), monthly mean summer temperature (temp), first Julian date of bare ground (bare), and first Julian date of permanent snow pack (snw.pck). Other symbols are defined in Table 2.