Ecological Archives E091-086-A1

E. Carol Adair, Sarah E. Hobbie, and Russell K. Hobbie. 2010. Single pool exponential decomposition models: potential pitfalls in their use in ecological studies. Ecology 91:1225–1236.

Appendix A. Literature review references: 498 litterbag studies.

Abelho, M, Graca, MAS. 2006. Effects of nutrient enrichment on decomposition and fungal colonization of sweet chestnut leaves in an Iberian stream (Central Portugal). Hydrobiologia 560, 239-247.

Addison, JA, Trofymow, JA, Marshall, VG. 2003. Functional role of Collembola in successional coastal temperate forests on Vancouver Island, Canada. Applied Soil Ecology 24, 247-261.

Aerts, R, De Caluwe, H, Beltman, B. 2003. Plant community mediated vs. nutritional controls on litter decomposition rates in grasslands. Ecology 84, 3198-3208.

Aerts, R, van Logtestijn, R, Karlsson, PS. 2006. Nitrogen supply differentially affects litter decomposition rates and nitrogen dynamics of sub-arctic bog species. Oecologia 146, 652-658.

Agoston-Szabo, E, Dinka, M, Nemedi, L, Horvath, G. 2006. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizome in a shallow lake. Aquatic Botany 85, 311-318.

Ake-Castillo, JA, Vazquez, G, Lopez-Portillo, J. 2006. Litterfall and decomposition of Rhizophora mangle L. in a coastal lagoon in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 559, 101-111.

Alemanno, S, Mancinelli, G, Basset, A. 2007. Effects of invertebrate patch use behaviour and detritus quality on reed leaf decomposition in aquatic systems: A modelling approach. Ecological Modelling 205, 492-506.

Alhamd, L, Arakaki, S, Hagihara, A. 2004. Decomposition of leaf litter of four tree species in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa Island, Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 202, 1-11.

Allard, V, Newton, PCD, Lieffering, M, Soussana, JF, Grieu, P, Matthew, C. 2004. Elevated CO2 effects on decomposition processes in a grazed grassland. Global Change Biology 10, 1553-1564.

Allison, SD, Vitousek, PM. 2004a. Extracellular enzyme activities and carbon chemistry as drivers of tropical plant litter decomposition. Biotropica 36, 285-296.

Allison, SD, Vitousek, PM. 2004b. Rapid nutrient cycling in leaf litter from invasive plants in Hawai'i. Oecologia 141, 612-619.

Alvarez, JA, Becares, E. 2006. Seasonal decomposition of Typha latifolia in a free-water surface constructed wetland. Ecological Engineering 28, 99-105.

Alvarez, S, Rico, E, Guerrero, MC, Montes, C. 2001. Decomposition of Juncus maritimus in two shallow lakes of Donana National Park. International Review of Hydrobiology 86, 541-554.

Andersen, DC, Nelson, SM. 2003. Effects of river flow regime on cottonwood leaf litter dynamics in semi-arid northwestern Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 48, 188-201.

Andersen, DC, Nelson, SM. 2006. Flood pattern and weather determine Populus leaf litter breakdown and nitrogen dynamics on a cold desert floodplain. Journal of Arid Environments 64, 626-650.

Anderson, JT, Smith, LM. 2002. The effect of flooding regimes on decomposition of Polygonum pensylvanicum in playa wetlands (Southern Great Plains, USA). Aquatic Botany 74, 97-108.

Andersson, M, Kjoller, A, Struwe, S. 2004. Microbial enzyme activities in leaf litter, humus and mineral soil layers of European forests. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 36, 1527-1537.

Anim-Kwapong, GJ. 2003. Potential of some Neotropical Albizia species as shade trees when replanting cacao in Ghana. Agroforestry Systems 58, 185-193.

Ardon, M, Stallcup, LA, Pringle, CM. 2006. Does leaf quality mediate the stimulation of leaf breakdown by phosphorus in Neotropical streams? Freshwater Biology 51, 618-633.

Arriaga, L, Maya, Y. 2007. Spatial variability in decomposition rates in a desert scrub of Northwestern Mexico. Plant Ecology 189, 213-225.

Arunachalam, A, Singh, ND. 2004. Decomposition of Mesua ferrea litter in humid tropics of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16, 151-159.

Arunachalam, A, Upadhyaya, K, Arunachalam, K, Pandey, HN. 2005. Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization dynamics in two bamboo species growing in a 9-year-old "jhum" fallow. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 17, 33-44.

Arunachalam, K, Singh, ND, Arunachalam, A. 2003. Decomposition of leguminous crop residues in a 'jhum' cultivation system in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science-Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenernahrung Und Bodenkunde 166, 731-736.

Asaeda, T, Nam, LH. 2002. Effects of rhizome age on the decomposition rate of Phragmites australis rhizomes. Hydrobiologia 485, 205-208.

Ashton, IW, Hyatt, LA, Howe, KM, Gurevitch, J, Lerdau, MT. 2005. Invasive species accelerate decomposition and litter nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest. Ecological Applications 15, 1263-1272.

Attignon, SE, Weibel, D, Lachat, T, Sinsin, B, Nagel, P, Peveling, R. 2004. Leaf litter breakdown in natural and plantation forests of the Lama forest reserve in Benin. Applied Soil Ecology 27, 109-124.

Austin, AT, Sala, OE, Jackson, RB. 2006. Inhibition of nitrification alters carbon turnover in the Patagonian steppe. Ecosystems 9, 1257-1265.

Axmanova, S, Rulik, M. 2005. DOC release from alder leaves and catkins during decomposition in a small lowland stream. International Review of Hydrobiology 90, 33-41.

Bailey, PCE, Watkins, SC, Morris, KL, Boon, PI. 2003. Do Melaleuca ericifolia Sm. leaves suppress organic matter decay in freshwater wetlands? Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 156, 225-240.

Baillie, IC, Ashton, PS, Chin, SP, Davies, SJ, Palmiotto, PA, Russo, SE, Tan, S. 2006. Spatial associations of humus, nutrients and soils in mixed dipterocarp forest at Lambir, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22, 543-553.

Baldy, V, Chauvet, E, Charcosset, JY, Gessner, MO. 2002. Microbial dynamics associated with leaves decomposing in the mainstem and floodplain pond of a large river. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 28, 25-36.

Ball, BA, Hunter, MD, Kominoski, JS, Swan, CM, Bradford, MA. 2008. Consequences of non-random species loss for decomposition dynamics: experimental evidence for additive and non-additive effects. Journal of Ecology 96, 303-313.

Balogh, KV, Presing, M, Voros, L, Toth, N. 2006. A study of the decomposition of reed (Phragmites australis) as a possible source of aquatic humic substances by measuring the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes. International Review of Hydrobiology 91, 15-28.

Barajas-Guzman, G, Alvarez-Sanchez, J. 2003. The relationships between litter fauna and rates of litter decomposition in a tropical rain forest. Applied Soil Ecology 24, 91-100.

Barbhuiya, AR, Arunachalam, A, Nath, PC, Khan, ML, Arunachalam, K. 2008. Leaf litter decomposition of dominant tree species of Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. Journal of Forest Research 13, 25-34.

Barlocher, F, Graca, MAS. 2002. Exotic riparian vegetation lowers fungal diversity but not leaf decomposition in Portuguese streams. Freshwater Biology 47, 1123-1135.

Bastow, JL, Preisser, EL, Strong, DR. 2008. Holcus lanatus invasion slows decomposition through its interaction with a macroinvertebrate detritivore, Porcellio scaber. Biological Invasions 10, 191-199.

Bates, JD, Svejcar, TS, Miller, RF. 2007. Litter decomposition in cut and uncut western juniper woodlands. Journal of Arid Environments 70, 222-236.

Battle, JM, Golladay, SW. 2007. How hydrology, habitat type, and litter quality affect leaf breakdown in wetlands on the gulf coastal plain of Georgia. Wetlands 27, 251-260.

Batty, LC, Younger, PL. 2007. The effect of pH on plant litter decomposition and metal cycling in wetland mesocosms supplied with mine drainage. Chemosphere 66, 158-164.

Bayley, SE, Mewhort, RL. 2004. Plant community structure and junctional differences between marshes and fens in the southern boreal region of Alberta, Canada. Wetlands 24, 277-294.

Bayley, SE, Thormann, MN, Szumigalski, AR. 2005. Nitrogen mineralization and decomposition in western boreal bog and fen peat. Ecoscience 12, 455-465.

Bayo, MM, Casas, JJ, Cruz-Pizarro, L. 2005. Decomposition of submerged Phragmites australis leaf litter in two highly eutrophic Mediterranean coastal lagoons: relative contribution of microbial respiration and macroinvertebrate feeding. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 163, 349-367.

Beard, KH, Eschtruth, AK, Vogt, KA, Vogt, DJ, Scatena, FN. 2003. The effects of the frog Eleutherodactylus coqui on invertebrates and ecosystem processes at two scales in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19, 607-617.

Beard, KH, Vogt, KA, Kulmatiski, A. 2002. Top-down effects of a terrestrial frog on forest nutrient dynamics. Oecologia 133, 583-593.

Beard, KH, Vogt, KA, Vogt, DJ, Scatena, FN, Covich, AP, Sigurdardottir, R, Siccama, TG, Crowl, TA. 2005. Structural and functional responses of a subtropical forest to 10 years of hurricanes and droughts. Ecological Monographs 75, 345-361.

Bedford, AP. 2004. A modified litter bag design for use in lentic habitats. Hydrobiologia 529, 187-193.

Bedford, AP. 2005. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter in seasonally flooded and exposed areas of a managed reedbed. Wetlands 25, 713-720.

Benstead, JP, Deegan, LA, Peterson, BJ, Huryn, AD, Bowden, WB, Suberkropp, K, Buzby, KM, Green, AC, Vacca, JA. 2005. Responses of a beaded Arctic stream to short-term N and P fertilization. Freshwater Biology 50, 277-290.

Berg, B, Dise, N. 2004. Calculating the long-term stable nitrogen sink in northern European forests. Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 26, 15-21.

Berg, B, Steffen, KT, McClaugherty, C. 2007. Litter decomposition rate is dependent on litter Mn concentrations. Biogeochemistry 82, 29-39.

Bergfur, J, Johnson, RK, Sandin, L, Goedkoop, W. 2007a. Assessing the ecological integrity of boreal streams: a comparison of functional and structural responses. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 168, 113-125.

Bergfur, J, Johnson, RK, Sandin, L, Goedkoop, W, Nygren, K. 2007b. Effects of nutrient enrichment on boreal streams: invertebrates, fungi and leaf-litter breakdown. Freshwater Biology 52, 1618-1633.

Bernal, S, Butturini, A, Nin, E, Sabater, F, Sabater, S. 2003. Leaf litter dynamics and nitrous oxide emission in a Mediterranean riparian forest: Implications for soil nitrogen dynamics. Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 191-197.

Bernhard-Reversat, F, Main, G, Holl, K, Loumeto, J, Ngao, J. 2003. Fast disappearance of the water-soluble phenolic fraction in eucalypt leaf litter during laboratory and field experiments. Applied Soil Ecology 23, 273-278.

Bjornlund, L, Christensen, S. 2005. How does litter quality and site heterogeneity interact on decomposer food webs of a semi-natural forest? Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 203-213.

Bohman, IM, Herrmann, J. 2006. The timing of winter-growing shredder species and leaf litter turnover rate in an oligotrophic lake, SE Sweden. Hydrobiologia 556, 99-108.

Bokhorst, S, Huiskes, A, Convey, P, Aerts, R. 2007. Climate change effects on organic matter decomposition rates in ecosystems from the Maritime Antarctic and Falkland Islands. Global Change Biology 13, 2642-2653.

Booker, FL, Prior, SA, Torbert, HA, Fiscus, EL, Pursley, WA, Hu, SJ. 2005. Decomposition of soybean grown under elevated concentrations of CO2 and O-3. Global Change Biology 11, 685-698.

Borders, BD, Pushnik, JC, Wood, DM. 2006. Comparison of leaf litter decomposition rates in restored and mature riparian forests on the Sacramento River, California. Restoration Ecology 14, 308-315.

Bosire, JO, Dahdouh-Guebas, F, Kairo, JG, Kazungu, J, Dehairs, F, Koedam, N. 2005. Litter degradation and CN dynamics in reforested mangrove plantations at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Biological Conservation 126, 287-295.

Bossa, JR, Adams, JF, Shannon, DA, Mullins, GL. 2005. Phosphorus and potassium release pattern from Leucaena leaves in three environments of Haiti. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 73, 25-35.

Boyero, L, Pearson, RG, Camacho, R. 2006. Leaf breakdown in tropical streams: the role of different species in ecosystem functioning. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 166, 453-466.

Bradford, MA, Tordoff, GM, Eggers, T, Jones, TH, Newington, JE. 2002. Microbiota, fauna, and mesh size interactions in litter decomposition. Oikos 99, 317-323.

Bragazza, L, Siffi, C, Iacumin, P, Gerdol, R. 2007. Mass loss and nutrient release during litter decay in peatland: The role of microbial adaptability to litter chemistry. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, 257-267.

Brandt, LA, King, JY, Milchunas, DG. 2007. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on litter decomposition depend on precipitation and litter chemistry in a shortgrass steppe ecosystem. Global Change Biology 13, 2193-2205.

Breymeyer, A. 2005. Are chemical and climatic drivers synergistic? The rate of pine litter decomposition along a gradient of climate and contamination litter on a W-E transect in temperate. Climatic Change 71, 221-248.

Bridgham, SD, Richardson, CJ. 2003. Endogenous versus exogenous nutrient control over decomposition and mineralization in North Carolina peatlands. Biogeochemistry 65, 151-178.

Bubier, JL, Moore, TR, Bledzki, LA. 2007. Effects of nutrient addition on vegetation and carbon cycling in an ombrotrophic bog. Global Change Biology 13, 1168-1186.

Buzby, KM, Viadero, RC. 2007. Structural and functional aspects of treated mine water and aquaculture effluent streams. Hydrobiologia 583, 251-263.

Cacador, I, Costa, AL, Vale, C. 2007. Nitrogen sequestration capacity of two salt marshes from the Tagus estuary. Hydrobiologia 587, 137-145.

Caldiz, MS, Brunet, J, Nihlgard, B. 2007. Lichen litter decomposition in Nothofagus forest of northern Patagonia: biomass and chemical changes over time. Bryologist 110, 266-273.

Cardenas, I, Campo, J. 2007. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus resorption and decomposition in the nitrogen-fixing tree Lysiloma microphyllum in primary and secondary seasonally tropical dry forests in Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23, 107-113.

Carter, CD, Marks, JC. 2007. Influences of travertine dam formation on leaf litter decomposition and algal accrual. Hydrobiologia 575, 329-341.

Carter, MD, Suberkropp, K. 2004. Respiration and annual fungal production associated with decomposing leaf litter in two streams. Freshwater Biology 49, 1112-1122.

Chabbi, A, Rumpel, C. 2004. Decomposition of plant tissue submerged in an extremely acidic mining lake sediment: phenolic CuO-oxidation products and solid-state(13)C NMR spectroscopy. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 36, 1161-1169.

Chadwick, MA, Dobberfuhl, DR, Benke, AC, Huryn, AD, Suberkropp, K, Thiele, JE. 2006. Urbanization affects stream ecosystem function by altering hydrology, chemistry, and biotic richness. Ecological Applications 16, 1796-1807.

Chadwick, MA, Huryn, AD. 2003. Effect of a whole-catchment N addition on stream detritus processing. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22, 194-206.

Chapman, JA, King, JS, Pregitzer, KS, Zak, DR. 2005. Effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O-3 on decomposition of fine roots. Tree Physiology 25, 1501-1510.

Chapman, SK, Hart, SC, Cobb, NS, Whitham, TG, Koch, GW. 2003. Insect herbivory increases litter quality and decomposition: An extension of the acceleration hypothesis. Ecology 84, 2867-2876.

Chapman, SK, Koch, GW. 2007. What type of diversity yields synergy during mixed litter decomposition in a natural forest ecosystem? Plant and Soil 299, 153-162.

Chara, J, Baird, D, Telfer, T, Giraldo, L. 2007. A comparative study of leaf breakdown of three native tree species in a slowly-flowing headwater stream in the Colombian Andes. International Review of Hydrobiology 92, 183-198.

Chen, H, Harmon, ME, Sexton, J, Fasth, B. 2002. Fine-root decomposition and N dynamics in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 32, 320-331.

Chen, HL, Li, B, Fang, CM, Chen, JK, Wu, JH. 2007. Exotic plant influences soil nematode communities through litter input. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, 1782-1793.

Chimney, MJ, Pietro, KC. 2006. Decomposition of macrophyte litter in a subtropical constructed wetland in south Florida (USA). Ecological Engineering 27, 301-321.

Chuyong, GB, Newbery, DM, Songwe, NC. 2002. Litter breakdown and mineralization in a central African rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. Biogeochemistry 61, 73-94.

Cobb, RC, Orwig, DA, Currie, S. 2006. Decomposition of green foliage in eastern hemlock forests of southern New England impacted by hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 36, 1331-1341.

Cobo, JG, Barrios, E, Kass, DCL, Thomas, RJ. 2002. Decomposition and nutrient release by green manures in a tropical hillside agroecosystem. Plant and Soil 240, 331-342.

Collen, P, Keay, EJ, Morrison, BRS. 2004. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens) leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8, 567-577.

Cornelissen, JHC, Quested, HM, Gwynn-Jones, D, Van Logtestijn, RSP, De Beus, MAH, Kondratchuk, A, Callaghan, TV, Aerts, R. 2004. Leaf digestibility and litter decomposability are related in a wide range of subarctic plant species and types. Functional Ecology 18, 779-786.

Cornelissen, JHC, Quested, HM, Logtestijn, RSP, Perez-Harguindeguy, N, Gwynn-Jones, D, Diaz, S, Callaghan, TV, Press, MC, Aerts, R. 2006. Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctic plant species and types? Oecologia 147, 315-326.

Corstanje, R, Reddy, KR, Portier, KM. 2006. Typha latifolia and Cladium jamaicense litter decay in response to exogenous nutrient enrichment. Aquatic Botany 84, 70-78.

Cortez, J, Garnier, E, Perez-Harguindeguy, N, Debussche, M, Gillon, D. 2007. Plant traits, litter quality and decomposition in a Mediterranean old-field succession. Plant and Soil 296, 19-34.

Costantini, ML, Rossi, L, Scialanca, F, Nascetti, G, Rossi, D, Sabetta, L. 2007. Association of riparian features and water chemistry with reed litter breakdown in a volcanic lake (Lake Vico, Italy). Aquatic Sciences 69, 503-510.

Costantini, ML, Sabetta, L, Mancinelli, G, Rossi, L. 2004. Spatial variability of the decomposition rate of Schoenoplectus tatora in a polluted area of Lake Titicaca. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20, 325-335.

Cotrufo, MF, De Angelis, P, Polle, A. 2005. Leaf litter production and decomposition in a poplar short-rotation coppice exposed to free air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE). Global Change Biology 11, 971-982.

Couteaux, MM, Sarmiento, L, Bottner, P, Acevedo, D, Thiery, JM. 2002. Decomposition of standard plant material along an altitudinal transect (65-3968 m) in the tropical Andes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 69-78.

Cowgill, SE, Bardgett, RD, Kiezebrink, DT, Atkinson, HJ. 2002. The effect of transgenic nematode resistance on non-target organisms in the potato rhizosphere. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 915-923.

Crawford, ER, Day, FP, Atkinson, RB. 2007. Influence of environment and substrate quality on root decomposition in naturally regenerating and restored Atlantic white cedar wetlands. Wetlands 27, 1-11.

Cronan, CS. 2003. Belowground biomass, production, and carbon cycling in mature Norway spruce, Maine, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 33, 339-350.

Crowl, TA, Welsh, V, Heartsill-Scalley, T, Covich, AP. 2006. Effects of different types of conditioning on rates of leaf-litter shredding by Xiphocaris elongata, a Neotropical freshwater shrimp. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25, 198-208.

Crutsinger, GM, Habenicht, MN, Classen, AT, Schweitzer, JA, Sanders, NJ. 2008. Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem. Plant and Soil 303, 95-103.

Curtin, D, Fraser, PM. 2003. Soil organic matter as influenced by straw management practices and inclusion of grass and clover seed crops in cereal rotations. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41, 95-106.

d'Annunzio, R, Zeller, B, Nicolas, M, Dhote, JF, Saint-Andre, L. 2008. Decomposition of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter: Combining quality theory and N-15 labelling experiments. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40, 322-333.

Dangles, O, Chauvet, E. 2003. Effects of stream acidification on fungal biomass in decaying beech leaves and leaf palatability. Water Research 37, 533-538.

Dangles, O, Gessner, MO, Guerold, F, Chauvet, E. 2004. Impacts of stream acidification on litter breakdown: implications for assessing ecosystem functioning. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 365-378.

Dangles, O, Malmqvist, B. 2004. Species richness-decomposition relationships depend on species dominance. Ecology Letters 7, 395-402.

Davey, MP, Berg, B, Emmett, BA, Rowland, P. 2007. Decomposition of oak leaf litter is related to initial litter Mn concentrations. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique 85, 16-24.

Davidson, EA, de Carvalho, CJR, Vieira, ICG, Figueiredo, RD, Moutinho, P, Ishida, FY, dos Santos, MTP, Guerrero, JB, Kalif, K, Saba, RT. 2004. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of biomass growth in a tropical secondary forest. Ecological Applications 14, S150-S163.

de Neiff, AP, Neiff, JJ, Casco, SL. 2006. Leaf litter decomposition in three wetland types of the Parana River floodplain. Wetlands 26, 558-566.

de Oliveira, CA, Muzzi, MRS, Purcino, HA, Marriel, IE, de Sa, NMH. 2003. Decomposition of Arachis pintoi and Hyparrhenia rufa litters in monoculture and intercropped systems under lowland soil. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 38, 1089-1095.

Dearden, FM, Dehlin, H, Wardle, DA, Nilsson, MC. 2006. Changes in the ratio of twig to foliage in litterfall with species composition, and consequences for decomposition across a long term chronosequence. Oikos 115, 453-462.

Dearden, FM, Wardle, DA. 2008. The potential for forest canopy litterfall interception by a dense fern understorey, and the consequences for litter decomposition. Oikos 117, 83-92.

Debusk, WF, Reddy, KR. 2005. Litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a phosphorus enriched everglades marsh. Biogeochemistry 75, 217-240.

Dechaine, J, Ruan, HH, Leon, YSD, Zou, XM. 2005. Correlation between earthworms and plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico. Pedobiologia 49, 601-607.

Decker, KLM, Boerner, REJ. 2006. Mass loss and nutrient release from decomposing evergreen and deciduous Nothofagus litters from the Chilean Andes. Austral Ecology 31, 1005-1015.

Dent, DH, Bagchi, R, Robinson, D, Majalap-Lee, N, Burslem, D. 2006. Nutrient fluxes via litterfall and leaf litter decomposition vary across a gradient of soil nutrient supply in a lowland tropical rain forest. Plant and Soil 288, 197-215.

Devi, AS, Yadava, PS. 2007. Wood and leaf litter decomposition of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. in a tropical deciduous forest of Manipur, Northeast India. Current Science 93, 243-246.

Dilly, O, Munch, JC, Pfeiffer, EM. 2007. Enzyme activities and litter decomposition in agricultural soils in northern, central, and southern Germany. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science-Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenernahrung Und Bodenkunde 170, 197-204.

Dinka, M, Agoston-Szabo, E, Toth, I. 2004. Changes in nutrient and fibre content of decomposing Phragmites australis litter. International Review of Hydrobiology 89, 519-535.

Dobson, M, Mathooko, JM, Ndegwa, FK, M'Erimba, C. 2004. Leaf litter processing rates in a Kenyan highland stream, the Njoro River. Hydrobiologia 519, 207-210.

Dorrepaal, E, Cornelissen, JHC, Aerts, R, Wallen, B, Van Logtestijn, RSP. 2005. Are growth forms consistent predictors of leaf litter quality and decomposability across peatlands along a latitudinal gradient? Journal of Ecology 93, 817-828.

Doyle, J, Pavel, R, Barness, G, Steinberger, Y. 2006. Cellulase dynamics in a desert soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 371-376.

Drenovsky, RE, Batten, KM. 2007. Invasion by Aegilops triuncialis (barb goatgrass) slows carbon and nutrient cycling in a serpentine grassland. Biological Invasions 9, 107-116.

Dress, WJ, Boerner, REJ. 2003. Temporal and spatial patterns in root nitrogen concentration and root decomposition in relation to prescribed fire. American Midland Naturalist 149, 245-257.

Duarte, S, Pascoal, C, Alves, A, Correia, A, Cassio, F. 2008. Copper and zinc mixtures induce shifts in microbial communities and reduce leaf litter decomposition in streams. Freshwater Biology 53, 91-101.

Duarte, S, Pascoal, C, Cassio, F. 2004. Effects of zinc on leaf decomposition by fungi in streams: Studies in microcosms. Microbial Ecology 48, 366-374.

Dubeux, JCB, Sollenberger, LE, Interrante, SM, Vendramini, JMB, Stewart, RL. 2006. Litter decomposition and mineralization in bahiagrass pastures managed at different intensities. Crop Science 46, 1305-1310.

Dumas, S, Neufeld, HS, Fisk, MC. 2007. Fire in a thermic oak-pine forest in Linville Gorge Wilderness Area, North Carolina: Importance of the shrub layer to ecosystem response. Castanea 72, 92-104.

Dunisch, O, Schwarz, T, Neves, EJM. 2002. Nutrient fluxes and growth of Carapa guianensis Aubl. in two plantation systems in the central Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 166, 55-68.

Dye, AH. 2006. Inhibition of the decomposition of Zostera capricornii litter by macrobenthos and meiobenthos in a brackish coastal lake system. Estuaries and Coasts 29, 802-809.

Eggert, SL, Wallace, JB. 2003. Litter breakdown and invertebrate detritivores in a resource-depleted Appalachian stream. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 156, 315-338.

Emmett, BA, Beier, C, Estiarte, M, Tietema, A, Kristensen, HL, Williams, D, Penuelas, J, Schmidt, I, Sowerby, A. 2004. The response of soil processes to climate change: Results from manipulation studies of shrublands across an environmental gradient. Ecosystems 7, 625-637.

Evrendilek, F, Berberoglu, S, Taskinsu-Meydan, S, Yilmaz, E. 2006. Quantifying carbon budgets of conifer Mediterranean forest ecosystems, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 119, 527-543.

Ferreira, V, Elosegi, A, Gulis, V, Pozo, J, Graca, MAS. 2006a. Eucalyptus plantations affect fungal communities associated with leaf-litter decomposition in Iberian streams. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 166, 467-490.

Ferreira, V, Graca, MAS, de Lima, J, Gomes, R. 2006b. Role of physical fragmentation and invertebrate activity in the breakdown rate of leaves. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 165, 493-513.

Ferreira, V, Gulis, V, Graca, MAS. 2006c. Whole-stream nitrate addition affects litter decomposition and associated fungi but not invertebrates. Oecologia 149, 718-729.

Finzi, AC, Schlesinger, AH. 2002. Species control variation in litter decomposition in a pine forest exposed to elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 8, 1217-1229.

Fioretto, A, Di Nardo, C, Papa, S, Fuggi, A. 2005. Lignin and cellulose degradation and nitrogen dynamics during decomposition of three leaf litter species in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 1083-1091.

Fioretto, A, Papa, S, Fuggi, A. 2003. Litter-fall and litter decomposition in a low Mediterranean shrubland. Biology and Fertility of Soils 39, 37-44.

Fioretto, A, Papa, S, Pellegrino, A, Fuggi, A. 2007. Decomposition dynamics of Myrtus communis and Quercus ilex leaf litter: Mass loss, microbial activity and quality change. Applied Soil Ecology 36, 32-40.

Fleituch, T, Leichtfried, M. 2007. Electron transport system (ETS) activity in alder leaf litter in two contrasting headwater streams. International Review of Hydrobiology 92, 378-391.

Fonnesu, A, Pinna, M, Basset, A. 2004. Spatial and temporal variations of detritus breakdown rates in the River Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, Italy). International Review of Hydrobiology 89, 443-+.

Fonte, SJ, Schowalter, TD. 2004. Decomposition of greenfall vs. senescent foliage in a tropical forest ecosystem in Puerto Rico. Biotropica 36, 474-482.

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Geissen, V, Guzman, GM. 2006. Fertility of tropical soils under different land use systems - a case study of soils in Tabasco, Mexico. Applied Soil Ecology 31, 169-178.

Gill, RA, Burke, IC. 2002. Influence of soil depth on the decomposition of Bouteloua gracilis roots in the shortgrass steppe. Plant and Soil 241, 233-242.

Gindaba, J, Olsson, M, Itanna, F. 2004. Nutrient composition and short-term release from Croton macrostachyus Del. and Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker leaves. Biology and Fertility of Soils 40, 393-397.

Girisha, GK, Condron, LM, Clinton, PW, Davis, MR. 2003. Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of green and freshly fallen radiata pine (Pinus radiata) needles. Forest Ecology and Management 179, 169-181.

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Goncalves, JFJ, Graca, MAS, Callisto, M. 2007b. Litter decomposition in a Cerrado savannah stream is retarded by leaf toughness, low dissolved nutrients and a low density of shredders. Freshwater Biology 52, 1440-1451.

Gonzalez, G, Seastedt, TR, Donato, Z. 2003. Earthworms, arthropods and plant litter decomposition in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA. Pedobiologia 47, 863-869.

Governo, R, Lockaby, BG, Rummer, B, Colson, C. 2004. Silvicultural management within streamside management zones of intermittent streams: Effects on decomposition, productivity, nutrient cycling, and channel vegetation. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 28, 211-224.

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Grunzweig, JM, Sparrow, SD, Chapin, FS. 2003. Impact of forest conversion to agriculture on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in subarctic Alaska. Biogeochemistry 64, 271-296.

Gulis, V, Ferreira, V, Graca, MAS. 2006. Stimulation of leaf litter decomposition and associated fungi and invertebrates by moderate eutrophication: implications for stream assessment. Freshwater Biology 51, 1655-1669.

Gulis, V, Suberkropp, K. 2003a. Effect of inorganic nutrients on relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decomposing leaf litter. Microbial Ecology 45, 11-19.

Gulis, V, Suberkropp, K. 2003b. Leaf litter decomposition and microbial activity in nutrient-enriched and unaltered reaches of a headwater stream. Freshwater Biology 48, 123-134.

Guo, LB, Halliday, MJ, Gifford, RM. 2006. Fine root decomposition under grass and pine seedlings in controlled environmental conditions. Applied Soil Ecology 33, 22-29.

Guo, LB, Sims, REH. 2002. Eucalypt litter decomposition and nutrient release under a short rotation forest regime and effluent irrigation treatments in New Zealand: II. Internal effects. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 913-922.

Gurvich, DE, Easdale, TA, Perez-Harguindeguy, N. 2003. Subtropical montane tree litter decomposition: Links with secondary forest types and species' shade tolerance. Austral Ecology 28, 666-673.

Gusewell, S, Jewell, PL, Edwards, PJ. 2005. Effects of heterogeneous habitat use by cattle on nutrient availability and litter decomposition in soils of an Alpine pasture. Plant and Soil 268, 135-149.

Hall, BD, Louis, VLS. 2004. Methylmercury and total mercury in plant litter decomposing in upland forests and flooded landscapes. Environmental Science & Technology 38, 5010-5021.

Hall, MC, Stiling, P, Moon, DC, Drake, BG, Hunter, MD. 2006. Elevated CO2 increases the long-term decomposition rate of Quercus myrtifolia leaf litter. Global Change Biology 12, 568-577.

Harguindeguy, NP, Blundo, CM, Gurvich, DE, Diaz, S, Cuevas, E. 2008. More than the sum of its parts? Assessing litter heterogeneity effects on the decomposition of litter mixtures through leaf chemistry. Plant and Soil 303, 151-159.

Harrison, KA, Bardgett, RD. 2003. How browsing by red deer impacts on litter decomposition in a native regenerating woodland in the Highlands of Scotland. Biology and Fertility of Soils 38, 393-399.

Hattenschwiler, S, Gasser, P. 2005. Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 1519-1524.

He, XM, Suzuki, A. 2004. Effects of urea treatment on litter decomposition in Pasania edulis forest soil. Journal of Wood Science 50, 266-270.

Heim, A, Frey, B. 2004. Early stage litter decomposition rates for Swiss forests. Biogeochemistry 70, 299-313.

Hendricks, JJ, Wilson, CA, Boring, LR. 2002. Foliar litter position and decomposition in a fire-maintained longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 32, 928-941.

Heneghan, L, Salmore, A, Crossley, DA. 2004. Recovery of decomposition and soil microarthropod communities in an Appalachian watershed two decades after a clearcut. Forest Ecology and Management 189, 353-362.

Hieber, M, Gessner, MO. 2002. Contribution of stream detrivores, fungi, and bacteria to leaf breakdown based on biomass estimates. Ecology 83, 1026-1038.

Hines, J, Megonigal, JP, Denno, RF. 2006. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions. Ecology 87, 1542-1555.

Hobbie, SE. 2005. Contrasting effects of substrate and fertilizer nitrogen on the early stages of litter decomposition. Ecosystems 8, 644-656.

Hobbie, SE, Gough, L. 2004. Litter decomposition in moist acidic and non-acidic tundra with different glacial histories. Oecologia 140, 113-124.

Hobbie, SE, Reich, PB, Oleksyn, J, Ogdahl, M, Zytkowiak, R, Hale, C, Karolewski, P. 2006. Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden. Ecology 87, 2288-2297.

Hoorens, B, Aerts, R, Stroetenga, M. 2003. Does initial litter chemistry explain litter mixture effects on decomposition? Oecologia 137, 578-586.

Hoorens, B, Aerts, R, Stroetenga, M. 2004. Elevated UV-B radiation has no effect on litter quality and decomposition of two dune grassland species: evidence from a long-term field experiment. Global Change Biology 10, 200-208.

Hou, PCL, Zou, XM, Huang, CY, Chien, HJ. 2005. Plant litter decomposition influenced by soil animals and disturbance in a subtropical rainforest of Taiwan. Pedobiologia 49, 539-547.

Huang, CY, Wang, CP, Hou, PCL. 2007a. Toads (Bufo bankorensis) influence litter chemistry but not litter invertebrates and litter decomposition rates in a subtropical forest of Taiwan. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23, 161-168.

Huang, JJ, Wang, XH, Yan, ER. 2007b. Leaf nutrient concentration, nutrient resorption and litter decomposition in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Forest Ecology and Management 239, 150-158.

Hughes, RF, Uowolo, A. 2006. Impacts of Falcataria moluccana invasion on decomposition in Hawaiian lowland wet forests: The importance of stand-level controls. Ecosystems 9, 977-991.

Hunt-Joshi, TR, Blossey, B, Root, RB. 2004. Root and leaf herbivory on Lythrum salicaria: Implications for plant performance and communities. Ecological Applications 14, 1574-1589.

Huryn, AD, Huryn, VMB, Arbuckle, CJ, Tsomides, L. 2002. Catchment land-use, macroinvertebrates and detritus processing in headwater streams: taxonomic richness versus function. Freshwater Biology 47, 401-415.

Hutchens, JJ, Wallace, JB. 2002. Ecosystem linkages between southern Appalachian headwater streams and their banks: Leaf litter breakdown and invertebrate assemblages. Ecosystems 5, 80-91.

Hyvonen, R, Berg, MP, Agren, GI. 2002. Modelling carbon dynamics in coniferous forest soils in a temperature gradient. Plant and Soil 242, 33-39.

Idol, TW, Holzbaur, KA, Pope, PE, Ponder, F. 2002. Control-bag correction for forest floor litterbag contamination. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 620-623.

Inkley, MD, Wissinger, SA, Baros, BL. 2008. Effects of drying regime on microbial colonization and shredder preference in seasonal woodland wetlands. Freshwater Biology 53, 435-445.

Isaac, ME, Gordon, AM, Thevathasan, N, Oppong, SK, Quashie-Sam, J. 2005. Temporal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen in west African multistrata agroforestry systems: a chronosequence of pools and fluxes. Agroforestry Systems 65, 23-31.

Isaac, SR, Nair, MA. 2005. Biodegradation of leaf litter in the warm humid tropics of Kerala, India. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 1656-1664.

Isaac, SR, Nair, MA. 2006. Litter dynamics of six multipurpose trees in a homegarden in Southern Kerala, India. Agroforestry Systems 67, 203-213.

Ishikawa, H, Osono, T, Takeda, H. 2007. Effects of clear-cutting on decomposition processes in leaf litter and the nitrogen and lignin dynamics in a temperate secondary forest. Journal of Forest Research 12, 247-254.

Jalota, RK, Dalal, RC, Harms, BP, Page, K, Mathers, NJ, Wang, WJ. 2006. Effects of litter and fine root composition on their decomposition in a Rhodic Paleustalf under different land uses. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37, 1859-1875.

Jerabkova, L, Prescott, CE, Kishchuk, BE. 2006. Nitrogen availability in soil and forest floor of contrasting types of boreal mixedwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 36, 112-122.

John, B, Pandey, HN, Tripathi, RS. 2002. Decomposition of fine roots of Pinus kesiya and turnover of organic matter, N and P of coarse and fine pine roots and herbaceous roots and rhizomes in subtropical pine forest stands of different ages. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35, 238-246.

Johnson, D, Hale, B. 2004. White birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) foliar litter decomposition in relation to trace metal atmospheric inputs at metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites near Sudbury, Ontario and Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada. Environmental Pollution 127, 65-72.

Joo, SJ, Yim, MH, Nakane, K. 2006. Contribution of microarthropods to the decomposition of needle litter in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantation. Forest Ecology and Management 234, 192-198.

Juman, RA. 2005. Biomass, litterfall and decomposition rates for the fringed Rhizophora mangle forest lining the Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago. Revista De Biologia Tropical 53, 207-217.

Kainulainen, P, Holopainen, JK. 2002. Concentrations of secondary compounds in Scots pine needles at different stages of decomposition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 37-42.

Kainulainen, P, Holopainen, T, Holopainen, JK. 2003. Decomposition of secondary compounds from needle litter of Scots pine grown under elevated CO2 and O-3. Global Change Biology 9, 295-304.

Kao, JT, Titus, JE, Zhu, WX. 2003. Differential nitrogen and phosphorus retention by five wetland plant species. Wetlands 23, 979-987.

Kaspari, M, Garcia, MN, Harms, KE, Santana, M, Wright, SJ, Yavitt, JB. 2008. Multiple nutrients limit litterfall and decomposition in a tropical forest. Ecology Letters 11, 35-43.

Kazakou, E, Vile, D, Shipley, B, Gallet, C, Garnier, E. 2006. Co-variations in litter decomposition, leaf traits and plant growth in species from a Mediterranean old-field succession. Functional Ecology 20, 21-30.

Kelley, RH, Jack, JD. 2002. Leaf litter decomposition in an ephemeral karst lake (Chaney Lake, Kentucky, USA). Hydrobiologia 482, 41-47.

Kemp, PR, Reynolds, JF, Virginia, RA, Whitford, WG. 2003. Decomposition of leaf and root litter of Chihuahuan desert shrubs: effects of three years of summer drought. Journal of Arid Environments 53, 21-39.

Kennedy, TA, Hobbie, SE. 2004. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream. Freshwater Biology 49, 65-76.

Kiese, R, Hewett, B, Graham, A, Butterbach-Bahl, K. 2003. Seasonal variability of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake by tropical rainforest soils of Queensland, Australia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17.

Kim, JG, Rejmankova, E. 2004. Decomposition of macrophytes and dynamics of enzyme activities in subalpine marshes in Lake Tahoe basin, USA. Plant and Soil 266, 303-313.

Kirschner, AKT, Riegl, B, Velimirov, B. 2001. Degradation of emergent and submerged macrophytes in an oxbow lake of an embanked backwater system: Implications for the terrestrialization process. International Review of Hydrobiology 86, 555-571.

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Knops, JMH, Naeemw, S, Reich, PB. 2007. The impact of elevated CO2, increased nitrogen availability and biodiversity on plant tissue quality and decomposition. Global Change Biology 13, 1960-1971.

Kobayashi, S, Kagaya, T. 2005. Hot spots of leaf breakdown within a headwater stream reach: comparing breakdown rates among litter patch types with different macroinvertebrate assemblages. Freshwater Biology 50, 921-929.

Kohler, AE, Rugenski, A, Taki, D. 2008. Stream food web response to a salmon carcass analogue addition in two central Idaho, USA streams. Freshwater Biology 53, 446-460.

Kominoski, JS, Pringle, CM, Ball, BA, Bradford, MA, Coleman, DC, Hall, DB, Hunter, MD. 2007. Nonadditive effects of leaf litter species diversity on breakdown dynamics in a detritus-based stream. Ecology 88, 1167-1176.

Kooijman, AM, Besse, M. 2002. The higher availability of N and P in lime-poor than in lime-rich coastal dunes in the Netherlands. Journal of Ecology 90, 394-403.

Koukoura, Z, Mamolos, AP, Kalburtji, KL. 2003. Decomposition of dominant plant species litter in a semi-arid grassland. Applied Soil Ecology 23, 13-23.

Kozovits, AR, Bustamante, MMC, Garofalo, CR, Bucci, S, Franco, AC, Goldstein, G, Meinzer, FC. 2007. Nutrient resorption and patterns of litter production and decomposition in a Neotropical Savanna. Functional Ecology 21, 1034-1043.

Kranabetter, JM, Chapman, BK. 2004. An analysis of litter nitrogen dynamics using artificial soils across a gradient of forest soil disturbances. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 84, 159-167.

Krauss, G, Sridhar, KR, Barlocher, F. 2005. Aquatic hyphomycetes and leaf decomposition in contaminated groundwater wells in Central Germany. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 162, 417-429.

Kreutzweiser, DP, Good, KP, Chartrand, DT, Scarr, TA, Holmes, SB, Thompson, DG. 2008. Effects on litter-dwelling earthworms and microbial decomposition of soil-applied imidacloprid for control of wood-boring insects. Pest Management Science 64, 112-118.

Kuehn, KA, Steiner, D, Gessner, MO. 2004. Diel mineralization patterns of standing-dead plant litter: Implications for CO2 flux from wetlands. Ecology 85, 2504-2518.

Kurz-Besson, C, Couteaux, MM, Thiery, JM, Berg, B, Remacle, J. 2005. A comparison of litterbag and direct observation methods of Scots pine needle decomposition measurement. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 2315-2318.

Kurzatkowski, D, Martius, C, Hofer, H, Garcia, M, Forster, B, Beck, L, Vlek, P. 2004. Litter decomposition, microbial biomass and activity of soil organisms in three agroforestry sites in central Amazonia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 69, 257-267.

Lachnicht, SL, Hendrix, PF, Potter, RL, Coleman, DC, Crossley, DA. 2004. Winter decomposition of transgenic cotton residue in conventional-till and no-till systems. Applied Soil Ecology 27, 135-142.

Laiho, R, Laine, J, Trettin, CC, Finer, L. 2004. Scots pine litter decomposition along drainage succession and soil nutrient gradients in peatland forests, and the effects of inter-annual weather variation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 36, 1095-1109.

Langhans, SD, Tockner, K. 2006. The role of timing, duration, and frequency of inundation in controlling leaf litter decomposition in a river-floodplain ecosystem (Tagliamento, northeastern Italy). Oecologia 147, 501-509.

Larmola, T, Alm, J, Juutinen, S, Koppisch, D, Augustin, J, Martikainen, PJ, Silvola, J. 2006. Spatial patterns of litter decomposition in the littoral zone of boreal lakes. Freshwater Biology 51, 2252-2264.

Lawrence, KL, Wise, DH. 2004. Unexpected indirect effect of spiders on the rate of litter disappearance in a deciduous forest. Pedobiologia 48, 149-157.

Lecerf, A, Dobson, M, Dang, CK, Chauvet, E. 2005. Riparian plant species loss alters trophic dynamics in detritus-based stream ecosystems. Oecologia 146, 432-442.

Lecerf, A, Patfield, D, Boiche, A, Riipinen, MP, Chauvet, E, Dobson, M. 2007a. Stream ecosystems respond to riparian invasion by Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64, 1273-1283.

Lecerf, A, Risnoveanu, G, Popescu, C, Gessner, MO, Chauvet, E. 2007b. Decomposition of diverse litter mixtures in streams. Ecology 88, 219-227.

Lecerf, A, Usseglio-Polatera, P, Charcosset, JY, Lambrigot, D, Bracht, B, Chauvet, E. 2006. Assessment of functional integrity of eutrophic streams using litter breakdown and benthic macroinvertebrates. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 165, 105-126.

Lee, AA, Bukaveckas, PA. 2002. Surface water nutrient concentrations and litter decomposition rates in wetlands impacted by agriculture and mining activities. Aquatic Botany 74, 273-285.

Lee, J, Morrison, IK, Leblanc, JD, Dumas, MT, Cameron, DA. 2002. Carbon sequestration in trees and regrowth vegetation as affected by clearcut and partial cut harvesting in a second-growth boreal mixedwood. Forest Ecology and Management 169, 83-101.

Lee, MS, Nakane, K, Nakatsubo, T, Koizumi, H. 2003. Seasonal changes in the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration in a cool-temperate deciduous forest. Plant and Soil 255, 311-318.

Legare, S, Pare, D, Bergeron, Y. 2005. Influence of aspen on forest floor properties in black spruce-dominated stands. Plant and Soil 275, 207-220.

Lehman, RM, Osborne, SL, Rosentrater, KA. 2008. No differences in decomposition rates observed between Bacillus thuringiensis and non-Bacillus thuringiensis corn residue incubated in the field. Agronomy Journal 100, 163-168.

Lemons, A, Clay, K, Rudgers, JA. 2005. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition. Oecologia 145, 595-604.

Lensing, JR, Wise, DH. 2006. Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 15502-15505.

Lensing, JR, Wise, DH. 2007. Impact of changes in rainfall amounts predicted by climate-change models on decomposition in a deciduous forest. Applied Soil Ecology 35, 523-534.

Leroy, CJ, Marks, JC. 2006. Litter quality, stream characteristics and litter diversity influence decomposition rates and macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 51, 605-617.

LeRoy, CJ, Whitham, TG, Keim, P, Marks, JC. 2006. Plant genes link forests and streams. Ecology 87, 255-261.

LeRoy, CJ, Whitham, TG, Wooley, SC, Marks, JC. 2007. Within-species variation in foliar chemistry influences leaf-litter decomposition in a Utah river. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26, 426-438.

Li, XF, Han, SJ, Zhang, Y. 2007. Foliar decomposition in a broadleaf-mixed Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. Et Zucc) plantation forest: the impact of initial litter quality and the decomposition of three kinds of organic matter fraction on mass loss and nutrient release rates. Plant and Soil 295, 151-167.

Li, Y, Xu, M, Zou, XM, Shi, PJ, Zhang, YQ. 2005. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico. Global Change Biology 11, 239-248.

Li, YQ, Xu, M, Zou, XM. 2006. Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest. Global Change Biology 12, 284-293.

Liao, CZ, Luo, YQ, Jiang, LF, Zhou, XH, Wu, XW, Fang, CM, Chen, JK, Li, B. 2007. Invasion of Spartina alterniflora enhanced ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Ecosystems 10, 1351-1361.

Liao, JH, Wang, HH, Tsai, CC, Hseu, ZY. 2006. Litter production, decomposition and nutrient return of uplifted coral reef tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management 235, 174-185.

Liao, JX, Hou, ZD, Wang, GX. 2002. Effects of elevated CO2 and drought on chemical composition and decomposition of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). Functional Plant Biology 29, 891-897.

Limpens, J, Berendse, F. 2003. How litter quality affects mass loss and N loss from decomposing Sphagnum. Oikos 103, 537-547.

Lindo, Z, Winchester, NN. 2007. Oribatid mite communities and foliar litter decomposition in canopy suspended soils and forest floor habitats of western redcedar forests, Vancouver Island, Canada. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, 2957-2966.

Lindsay, EA, French, K. 2004. Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp rotundata invasion alters decomposition rates in coastal areas of south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 198, 387-399.

Liski, J, Nissinen, A, Erhard, M, Taskinen, O. 2003. Climatic effects on litter decomposition from arctic tundra to tropical rainforest. Global Change Biology 9, 575-584.

Liu, LL, King, JS, Giardina, CP. 2007a. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O-3 on nutrient dynamics: decomposition of leaf litter in trembling aspen and paper birch communities. Plant and Soil 299, 65-82.

Liu, P, Huang, JH, Han, XG, Sun, OJ, Zhou, Z. 2006. Differential responses of litter decomposition to increased soil nutrients and water between two contrasting grassland plant species of Inner Mongolia, China. Applied Soil Ecology 34, 266-275.

Liu, P, Sun, OJ, Huang, JH, Li, LH, Han, XG. 2007b. Nonadditive effects of litter mixtures on decomposition and correlation with initial litter N and P concentrations in grassland plant species of northern China. Biology and Fertility of Soils 44, 211-216.

Liu, Q, Peng, SL, Bi, H, Zang, HY, Li, ZA, Ma, WH, Li, NY. 2005. Decomposition of leaf litter in tropical and subtropical forests of Southern China. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 17, 543-556.

Liu, ZG, Zou, XM. 2002. Exotic earthworms accelerate plant litter decomposition in a Puerto Rican pasture and a wet forest. Ecological Applications 12, 1406-1417.

Lockaby, BG, Governo, R, Schilling, E, Cavalcanti, G, Hartsfield, C. 2005. Effects of sedimentation on soil nutrient dynamics in riparian forests. Journal of Environmental Quality 34, 390-396.

Lodge, GM, King, KL, Harden, S. 2006. Effects of pasture treatments on detached pasture litter mass, quality, litter loss, decomposition rates, and residence time in northern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57, 1073-1085.

Lohr, A, Noordijk, J, Lrianto, K, Van Gestel, CAM, Van Straalen, NM. 2006. Leaf decomposition in an extremely acidic river of volcanic origin in Indonesia. Hydrobiologia 560, 51-61.

Loranger, G, Ponge, JF, Imbert, D, Lavelle, P. 2002. Leaf decomposition in two semi-evergreen tropical forests: influence of litter quality. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35, 247-252.

Lorena, CA, Noe, VD, Victoria, CM, Beatriz, BM, Leticia, SC, Julia, MM. 2005. Soil nitrogen in relation to quality and decomposability of plant litter in the Patagonian Monte, Argentina. Plant Ecology 181, 139-151.

Lorenz, K, Preston, CM, Krumrei, S, Feger, KH. 2004. Decomposition of needle/leaf litter from Scots pine, black cherry, common oak and European beech at a conurbation forest site. European Journal of Forest Research 123, 177-188.

Ludovici, KH, Kress, LW. 2006. Decomposition and nutrient release from fresh and dried pine roots under two fertilizer regimes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 36, 105-111.

Luizao, RCC, Luizao, FJ, Proctor, J. 2007. Fine root growth and nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter in three contrasting vegetation types in central Amazonia. Plant Ecology 192, 225-236.

Luxhoi, J, Magid, J, Tscherko, D, Kandeler, E. 2002. Dynamics of invertase, xylanase and coupled quality indices of decomposing green and brown plant residues. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 501-508.

Mabuhay, JA, Nakagoshi, N, Isagi, Y. 2006. Microbial responses to organic and inorganic amendments in eroded soil. Land Degradation & Development 17, 321-332.

Madritch, MD, Cardinale, BJ. 2007. Impacts of tree species diversity on litter decomposition in northern temperate forests of Wisconsin, USA: a multi-site experiment along a latitudinal gradient. Plant and Soil 292, 147-159.

Madritch, MD, Hunter, MD. 2002. Phenotypic diversity influences ecosystem functioning in an oak sandhills community. Ecology 83, 2084-2090.

Mancinelli, G, Costantini, ML, Rossi, L. 2002. Cascading effects of predatory fish exclusion on the detritus-based food web of a lake littoral zone (Lake Vico, central Italy). Oecologia 133, 402-411.

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Sanmarti, N, Menendez, M. 2007. Litter decomposition of Scirpus maritimus L. in a Mediterranean coastal marsh: Importance of the meiofauna during the initial phases of detached leaves decomposition. International Review of Hydrobiology 92, 211-226.

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Sowerby, A, Blum, H, Ball, AS. 2005. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affects the turnover of nitrogen in a European grassland. Applied Soil Ecology 28, 37-46.

Spaenhoff, B, Augspurger, C, Kuesel, K. 2007. Comparing field and laboratory breakdown rates of coarse particulate organic matter: Sediment dynamics mask the impacts of dissolved nutrients on CPOM mass loss in streams. Aquatic Sciences 69, 495-502.

Stallcup, LA, Ardon, M, Pringle, CM. 2006. Does nitrogen become limiting under high-P conditions in detritus-based tropical streams? Freshwater Biology 51, 1515-1526.

Standish, RJ, Williams, PA, Robertson, AW, Scott, NA, Hedderley, DI. 2004. Invasion by a perennial herb increases decomposition rate and alters nutrient availability in warm temperate lowland forest remnants. Biological Invasions 6, 71-81.

Stark, S, Grellmann, D. 2002. Soil microbial responses to herbivory in an arctic tundra heath at two levels of nutrient availability. Ecology 83, 2736-2744.

Stark, S, Julkunen-Tiitto, R, Kumpula, J. 2007. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling. Oecologia 151, 486-498.

Steltzer, H, Bowman, WD. 2005. Litter N retention over winter for a low and a high phenolic species in the alpine tundra. Plant and Soil 275, 361-370.

Stolter, C, Julkunen-Tiitto, R, Ganzhorn, JU. 2006. Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess some properties of a sub-arctic ecosystem. Basic and Applied Ecology 7, 167-187.

Su, R, Lohner, RN, Kuehn, KA, Sinsabaugh, R, Neely, RK. 2007. Microbial dynamics associated with decomposing Typha angustifolia litter in two contrasting Lake Erie coastal wetlands. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 46, 295-307.

Suarez, ER, Fahey, TJ, Yavitt, JB, Groffman, PM, Bohlen, PJ. 2006. Patterns of litter disappearance in a northern hardwood forest invaded by exotic earthworms. Ecological Applications 16, 154-165.

Swan, CM, Palmer, MA. 2004. Leaf diversity alters litter breakdown in a Piedmont stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23, 15-28.

Tanaka, MO, Ribas, ACA, de Souza, ALT. 2006. Macroinvertebrate succession during leaf litter breakdown in a perennial karstic river in Western Brazil. Hydrobiologia 568, 493-498.

Tateno, R, Tokuchi, N, Yamanaka, N, Du, S, Otsuki, K, Shimamura, T, Xue, ZD, Wang, SQ, Hou, QC. 2007. Comparison of litterfall production and leaf litter decomposition between an exotic black locust plantation and an indigenous oak forest near Yan'an on the Loess Plateau, China. Forest Ecology and Management 241, 84-90.

Taylor, BR, Dykstra, AN. 2005. Effects of hot ground water on a small swamp-stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Hydrobiologia 545, 129-144.

Taylor, BR, Mallaley, C, Cairns, JF. 2007. Limited evidence that mixing leaf litter accelerates decomposition or increases diversity of decomposers in streams of eastern Canada. Hydrobiologia 592, 405-422.

Taylor, J, Middleton, BA. 2004. Comparison of litter decomposition in a natural versus coal-slurry pond reclaimed as a wetland. Land Degradation & Development 15, 439-446.

Teklay, T. 2007. Decomposition and nutrient release from pruning residues of two indigenous agroforestry species during the wet and dry seasons. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 77, 115-126.

Teklay, T, Malmer, A. 2004. Decomposition of leaves from two indigenous trees of contrasting qualities under shaded-coffee and agricultural hand-uses during the dry season at Wondo Genet, Ethiopia. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 36, 777-786.

Tewksbury, CE, Van Miegroet, H. 2007. Soil organic carbon dynamics along a climatic gradient in a southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 37, 1161-1172.

Thirukkumaran, CM, Parkinson, D. 2002. Microbial activity, nutrient dynamics and litter decomposition in a Canadian Rocky Mountain pine forest as affected by N and P fertilizers. Forest Ecology and Management 159, 187-201.

Thongjoo, C, Miyagawa, S, Kawakubo, N. 2005. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on decomposition rates of some waste materials from agriculture and agro-industry. Plant Production Science 8, 475-481.

Thormann, MN, Bayley, SE, Currah, RS. 2004. Microcosm tests of the effects of temperature and microbial species number on the decomposition of Carex aquatilis and Sphagnum fuscum litter from southern boreal peatlands. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 50, 793-802.

Throop, HL, Archer, SR. 2007. Interrelationships among shrub encroachment, land management, and litter decomposition in a semidesert grassland. Ecological Applications 17, 1809-1823.

Thuille, A, Schulze, ED. 2006. Carbon dynamics in successional and afforested spruce stands in Thuringia and the Alps. Global Change Biology 12, 325-342.

Tian, G, Badejo, MA, Okoh, AI, Ishida, F, Kolawole, GO, Hayashi, Y, Salako, FK. 2007. Effects of residue quality and climate on plant residue decomposition and nutrient release along the transect from humid forest to Sahel of West Africa. Biogeochemistry 86, 217-229.

Titus, JE, Pagano, AM. 2002. Decomposition of litter from submersed macrophytes: the indirect effects of high [CO2]. Freshwater Biology 47, 1367-1375.

Torres, PA, Abril, AB, Bucher, EH. 2005. Microbial succession in litter decomposition in the semi-arid Chaco woodland. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 49-54.

Tripathi, SK, Sumida, A, Shibata, H, Ono, K, Uemura, S, Kodama, Y, Hara, T. 2006. Leaf litterfall and decomposition of different above- and belowground parts of birch (Betula ermanii) trees and dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis) shrubs in a young secondary forest in Northern Japan. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43, 237-246.

Trofymow, JA, Moore, TR, Titus, B, Prescott, C, Morrison, I, Siltanen, M, Smith, S, Fyles, J, Wein, R, CamirT, C, Duschene, L, Kozak, L, Kranabetter, M, Visser, S. 2002. Rates of litter decomposition over 6 years in Canadian forests: influence of litter quality and climate. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 32, 789-804.

Tuchman, NC, Wahtera, KA, Wetzel, RG, Teeri, JA. 2003. Elevated atmospheric CO2 alters leaf litter quality for stream ecosystems: an in situ leaf decomposition study. Hydrobiologia 495, 203-211.

Tutua, SS, Goh, KM, Daly, MJ. 2002. Decomposition and nitrogen release of understorey plant residues in biological and integrated apple orchards under field conditions in New Zealand. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35, 277-287.

Uchida, M, Mo, W, Nakatsubo, T, Tsuchiya, Y, Horikoshi, T, Koizumi, H. 2005. Microbial activity and litter decomposition under snow cover in a cool-temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134, 102-109.

Valachovic, YS, Caldwell, BA, Cromack, K, Griffiths, RP. 2004. Leaf litter chemistry controls on decomposition of Pacific Northwest trees and woody shrubs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 34, 2131-2147.

Valaskova, V, Snajdr, J, Bittner, B, Cajthaml, T, Merhautova, V, Hoffichter, M, Baldrian, P. 2007. Production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and degradation of leaf litter by saprotrophic basidiomycetes isolated from a Quercus petraea forest. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, 2651-2660.

Valenzuela-Solano, C, Crohn, DM. 2006. Are decomposition and N release from organic mulches determined mainly by their chemical composition? Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 377-384.

van der Krift, TAJ, Kuikman, PJ, Berendse, F. 2002. The effect of living plants on root decomposition of four grass species. Oikos 96, 36-45.

van Dokkum, HP, Slijkerman, DME, Rossi, L, Costantini, ML. 2002. Variation in the decomposition of Phragmites australis litter in a monomictic lake: the role of gammarids. Hydrobiologia 482, 69-77.

van Meeteren, MM, Tietema, A, van Loon, EE, Verstraten, JM. 2008. Microbial dynamics and litter decomposition under a changed climate in a Dutch heathland. Applied Soil Ecology 38, 119-127.

Van Ryckegem, G, Van Driessche, G, Van Beeumen, JJ, Verbeken, A. 2006. The estimated impact of fungi on nutrient dynamics during decomposition of Phragmites australis leaf sheaths and stems. Microbial Ecology 52, 564-574.

Vargas, DN, Bertiller, MB, Ares, JO, Carrera, AL, Sain, CL. 2006. Soil C and N dynamics induced by leaf-litter decomposition of shrubs and perennial grasses of the Patagonian Monte. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 2401-2410.

Vasconcelos, HL, Laurance, WF. 2005. Influence of habitat, litter type, and soil invertebrates on leaf-litter decomposition in a fragmented Amazonian landscape. Oecologia 144, 456-462.

Vasconcelos, SS, Zarin, DJ, da Rosa, MBS, Oliveira, FD. 2007. Leaf decomposition in a dry season irrigation experiment in Eastern Amazonian forest regrowth. Biotropica 39, 593-600.

Villela, DM, Proctor, J. 2002. Leaf litter decomposition and monodominance in the Peltogyne forest of Maraca Island, Brazil. Biotropica 34, 334-347.

Vinton, MA, Goergen, EM. 2006. Plant-soil feedbacks contribute to the persistence of Bromus inermis in tallgrass prairie. Ecosystems 9, 967-976.

Waldrop, MP, McColl, JG, Powers, RF. 2003. Effects of forest postharvest management practices on enzyme activities in decomposing litter. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67, 1250-1256.

Wang, QK, Wang, SL, Fan, B, Yu, XJ. 2007. Litter production, leaf litter decomposition and nutrient return in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in south China: effect of planting conifers with broadleaved species. Plant and Soil 297, 201-211.

Wantzen, KM, Wagner, R. 2006. Detritus processing by invertebrate shredders: a neotropical-temperate comparison. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25, 216-232.

Wardle, DA, Hornberg, G, Zackrisson, O, Kalela-Brundin, M, Coomes, DA. 2003. Long-term effects of wildfire on ecosystem properties across an island area gradient. Science 300, 972-975.

Wardle, DA, Yeates, GW, Barker, GM, Bonner, KI. 2006. The influence of plant litter diversity on decomposer abundance and diversity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 1052-1062.

Weatherly, HE, Zitzer, SF, Coleman, JS, Arnone, JA. 2003. In situ litter decomposition and litter quality in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and interannual climate variability. Global Change Biology 9, 1223-1233.

Weerakkody, J, Parkinson, D. 2006. Leaf litter decomposition in an upper montane rainforest in Sri Lanka. Pedobiologia 50, 387-395.

Welsch, M, Yavitt, JB. 2003. Early stages of decay of Lythrum salicaria L. and Typha latifolia L. in a standing-dead position. Aquatic Botany 75, 45-57.

White, TA, Barker, DJ, Moore, KJ. 2004. Vegetation diversity, growth, quality and decomposition in managed grasslands. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 101, 73-84.

Williams, JL. 2002. Effects of the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina weberi (Atyidae) on leaf litter decomposition. Biotropica 34, 616-619.

Windham, L, Weis, JS, Weis, P. 2004. Metal dynamics of plant litter of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis in metal-contaminated salt marshes. Part 1: Patterns of decomposition and metal uptake. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 1520-1528.

Wright, CJ, Coleman, DC. 2002. Responses of soil microbial biomass, nematode trophic groups, N-mineralization, and litter decomposition to disturbance events in the southern Appalachians. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 13-25.

Wu, YQ, Liu, GH, Fu, BJ, Liu, ZF, Hu, HF. 2006. Comparing soil CO2 emission in pine plantation and oak shrub: Dynamics and correlations. Ecological Research 21, 840-848.

Xiang, W, Bauhus, J. 2007. Does the addition of litter from N-fixing Acacia mearnsii accelerate leaf decomposition of Eucalyptus globulus? Australian Journal of Botany 55, 576-583.

Xie, YH, Qin, HY, Yu, D. 2004a. Nutrient limitation to the decomposition of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Hydrobiologia 529, 105-112.

Xie, YH, Yu, D, Ren, B. 2004b. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on the decomposition of aquatic plants. Aquatic Botany 80, 29-37.

Xu, XN, Hirata, EJ. 2005. Decomposition patterns of leaf litter of seven common canopy species in a subtropical forest: N and P dynamics. Plant and Soil 273, 279-289.

Xuluc-Tolosa, FJ, Vester, HFM, Ramirez-Marcial, N, Castellanos-Albores, J, Lawrence, D. 2003. Leaf litter decomposition of tree species in three successional phases of tropical dry secondary forest in Campeche, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 174, 401-412.

Yahdjian, L, Sala, O, Austin, A. 2006. Differential controls of water input on litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics in the Patagonian steppe. Ecosystems 9, 128-141.

Yanai, S, Kochi, K. 2005. Effects of salmon carcasses on experimental stream ecosystems in Hokkaido, Japan. Ecological Research 20, 471-480.

Yang, YS, Chen, GS, Guo, HF, Lin, P. 2004a. Decomposition dynamic of fine roots in a mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongiodendron odorum in mid-subtropics. Annals of Forest Science 61, 65-72.

Yang, YS, Chen, GS, Lin, P, Xie, JS, Guo, JF. 2004b. Fine root distribution, seasonal pattern and production in four plantations compared with a natural forest in Subtropical China. Annals of Forest Science 61, 617-627.

Yang, YS, Guo, JF, Chen, GS, Xie, JS, Cai, LP, Lin, P. 2004c. Litterfall, nutrient return, and leaf-litter decomposition in four plantations compared with a natural forest in subtropical China. Annals of Forest Science 61, 465-476.

Zaller, JG, Searles, PS, Rousseaux, MC, Flint, SD, Caldwell, MM, Sala, O, Ballare, CL, Scopel, AL. 2003. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation can affect slug feeding preference for some plant species native to a fen ecosystem in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Plant Ecology 169, 43-51.

Zimmer, M, Kautz, G, Topp, W. 2005. Do woodlice and earthworms interact synergistically in leaf litter decomposition? Functional Ecology 19, 7-16.

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