Appendix E (FIG. E1). LTRE analysis of four-cohort dataset. Influence of environment on population growth rate (λ). The influence of cohort (a), spatial block (b), year (c), cohort × block (d), cohort × year (e), block × year (f), and cohort × block × year (g) on λ in an experimental population of Plantago lanceolata at Shadwell, Virginia, between the years 2003 and 2009. Asterisks in (a–f) indicate significant LTRE effects, while in (g), 169 out of 288 LTRE effects were significant (P < 0.05). Bars indicate standard errors.