Ecological Archives E095-166-A1
Guadalupe Peralta, Carol M. Frost, Tatyana A. Rand, Raphael K. Didham, and Jason M. Tylianakis. 2014. Complementarity and redundancy of interactions enhance attack rates and spatial stability in host–parasitoid food webs. Ecology 95:1888–1896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1569.1
Appendix A. Study region, sampling, molecular identification technique, and species collected.
The Nelson and Marlborough area (South Island, New Zealand) was originally covered by native southern beech (Nothofagus spp., Fagaceae) forest from the coast to the alpine tree-limit. However, conversion to agriculture, plantation forestry and urbanization have greatly reduced the area of natural forest, and edges have proliferated (Ewers et al. 2006). Exotic plantation species are used for timber, and commercial forestry is increasingly concentrated on a single species: Pinus radiata. Nowadays, juxtaposition of native and production forests is common in this region and worldwide.
We selected eight sites, each of them composed of two adjacent forest types representative of the two predominant forest types in the region (native southern beech and Pinus radiata monoculture plantation), with a minimum distance between sites of at least 2.7 km (maximum distance 94.6 km). At each site we established four sampling plots, with two in each forest type (Fig. A1).
In each sampling plot we collected Lepidoptera larvae along a 50 × 2 m transect. All the transects within a site fell within an elevation range of 100 m to avoid potential confounding effects caused by altitudinal differences within sites (De Sassi et al. 2012), even though elevation varied from 70 – 637 m across sites. In order to minimize the depletion of herbivore numbers on consecutive sampling rounds, we moved each transect 1 m away from the transect used in the previous month, so that the same plants were not sampled on multiple occasions. Also, to better quantify the number of interactions between herbivores (hosts) and parasitoids (that is, to make webs more representative of the diverse interactions occurring at a site), we sampled extra plants in sites for which the total number of herbivores collected was less than 50. These samples were taken as close to the transect as possible, and allowed us to increase our sample size of herbivores and parasitoids.
Molecular identification of parasitoid specimens
For molecular identification of parasitoids, particularly males, we sequenced a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) used in previous studies for parasitoid identification (Kaartinen et al. 2010), and related male sequences to those of female specimens that had been identified morphologically. Specimens that had COI sequences which were > 96 % similar were considered to be the same species, as this captured most of the species defined without molecular means (Smith et al. 2013). All specimens were identified to species or morphospecies (for the undescribed species) level (Table A1) with the help of expert taxonomists (see acknowledgments). For the morphospecies, both herbivores (hosts) and parasitoids were at least identified to genus level according to current taxonomic classification (with the exception of the lepidopteran family Psychidae for which only two species could be identified and the remaining 4 specimens could not be assigned to a species and were lumped into the morphospecies 'Psychidae sp.').
Fig. A1. Sampling design at each of our eight sites formed by native beech forest (left) and adjacent exotic pine plantation (right). At each site we sampled host-parasitoid food webs in four sampling plots (white squares), two in the native area and two in the plantation area of the site. In total, 32 subplots were sampled.
Table A1. List of (A) host and (B) parasitoid families and species. Species are listed by family alphabetically. Voucher specimens of Ichneumonidae and Tachinidae parasitoids have been deposited at the New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) in Auckland; Braconidae, Campopleginae, Chalcididae, and Eulophinae parasitoids at the Te Papa Museum Entomology Collection in Wellington, New Zealand.
Nyctemera annulata (Boisduval, 1832)
Heterocrossa gonosemana Meyrick, 1882
Heterocrossa Meyrick, 1882 sp. 'indet A'
Paramorpha marginata (Philpott, 1931)
Deana hybreasalis (Walker, 1859)
Musotima nitidalis (Walker, 1866)
Rhapsa scotosialis Walker, 1866
Thiotricha Meyrick, 1886 sp.
Thiotricha lindsayi Philpott, 1927
Austrocidaria Dugdale, 1971 sp.
Chalastra pellurgata Walker, 1862
Chloroclystis Hubner,  sp.
Cleora scriptaria (Walker, 1860)
Declana feredayi Butler, 1877
Declana floccosa Walker, 1858
Declana hermione Hudson, 1898
Declana junctilinea (Walker, 1865)
Declana leptomera (Walker, 1858)
Declana niveata Butler, 1879
Elvia glaucata Walker, 1862
Gellonia Meyrick, 1884 sp.
Helastia Guenée, 1868 sp.
Hydriomena deltoidata (Walker, 1862)
Ischalis gallaria (Walker, 1860)
Ischalis variabilis (Warren, 1895)
Pasiphila sandycias (Meyrick, 1905)
Poecilasthena Warren, 1894 sp.
Pseudocoremia ampla (Hudsonb, 1923)
Pseudocoremia fascialata (Philpott, 1903)
Pseudocoremia fenerata (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
Pseudocoremia fluminea (Philpott, 1926)
Pseudocoremia leucelaea (Meyrick, 1909)
Pseudocoremia lupinata (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
Pseudocoremia productata (Walker, 1862)
Pseudocoremia Butler, 1877 sp.
Sarisa muriferata (Walker, 1863)
Sestra Walker, 1862 sp.
Tatosoma lestevata (Walker, 1862)
Tatosoma tipulata (Walker, 1862)
Xyridacma alectoraria (Walker, 1860)
Xyridacma ustaria (Walker, 1863)
Caloptilia linearis (Butler, 1877)
Caloptilia selenitis (Meyrick, 1909)
Austramathes purpurea (Butler, 1879)
Andesia pessota (Meyrick, 1887)
Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday, 1843)
Feredayia graminosa (Walker, 1857)
Graphania insignis (Walker, 1865)
Graphania mutans (Walker, 1857)
Graphania plena (Walker, 1865)
Graphania ustistriga (Walker, 1857)
Meterana dotata (Walker, 1857)
Meterana pascoi (Howes, 1912)
Meterana vitiosa (Butler, 1877)
Physetica prionistis Meyrick, 1887
Physetica sequens Howes, 1912
Celama parvitis Howes, 1917
Eutorna phaulocosma Meyrick, 1906
Gymnobathra Meyrick, 1883 sp.
Nymphostola galactina (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
Phaeosaces Meyrick, 1886 sp.
Proteodes profunda Meyrick, 1905
Orthenches Meyrick, 1886 sp.
Grypotheca pertinax Dugdale, 1987
Liothula omnivora Fereday, 1878
Stathmopoda Herrich-Schaffer, 1853 sp. 'chocolate'
Erechthias externella (Walker, 1864)
Sagephora phortegella Meyrick, 1888
Apoctena Dugdale, 1990 sp.
Catamacta gavisana (Walker, 1863)
Cnephasia jactatana (Walker, 1863)
Ctenopseustis Meyrick, 1885 sp.
Dipterina imbriferana Meyrick, 1881
Ecclitica torogramma (Meyrick, 1897)
Epalxiphora axenana Meyrick, 1881
Epichorista emphanes (Meyrick, 1901)
Epichorista hemiona (Meyrick, 1882)
Epiphyas postvittana (Walker, 1863)
Harmologa amplexana (Zeller, 1875)
Holocola emplasta Meyrick, 1901
Holocola parthenia Meyrick, 1888
Holocola zopherana Meyrick, 1881
Leucotenes coprosmae (Dugdale, 1988)
Planotortrix excessana (Walker, 1863)
Planotortrix notophaea (Turner, 1926)
Planotortrix octo Dugdale, 1990
Pyrgotis Meyrick, 1881 sp.
Strepsicrates Meyrick, 1881 sp.
Kessleria copidota (Meyrick, 1889)
Aleiodes declanae van Achterberg, 2005
Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 sp.
Choeras Mason, 1981 sp.
Cotesia Cameron, 1891 sp.
Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 sp. 2
Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 'darklegs' sp. 4
Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 'lightly punct'
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 'dark'
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 2
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 3
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 4
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 5
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp.6
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 8
Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 9
Meteorus cinctellus (Spinolla, 1808)
Meteorus cobbus Huddleston, 1986
Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael, 1835)
Diadegma Forster, 1868 'brown '
Diadegma Forster, 1868 'gold setae'
Diadegma Forster, 1868 sp. 1
Diadegma Forster, 1868 sp. 3
Sympiesis Forster, 1856 sp.
Zealachertus Boucek, 1978 sp.
Zealachertus tortriciphaga Berry, 1999
Aucklandella Cameron, 1909 sp.
Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 1
Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 4
Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 5
Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 9
Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 1
Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 13
Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 2
Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 3
Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 4
Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 9
Carria fortipes (Cameron, 1898)
Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 'no areolet'
Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 'petiolate areolet'
Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 sp. 2
Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 sp. 3
Casinaria Holmgren, 1858 sp. 3
Genus nov Hearthead
Ophion Fabricius, 1798 sp.
Phytodietus Gravenhorst, 1829 sp.
Sciron Fitton, 1984 sp.
Calcager dubium Malloch, 1938
Calcageria incidens Curran, 1927
Genotrichia minor Malloch, 1938
Genotrichia Malloch, 1938 sp.
Montanarturia dimorpha (Malloch, 1938)
Pales atrox (Hutton, 1901)
Pales casta (Hutton, 1904)
Pales clathrata (Nowicki, 1875)
Pales feredayi (Hutton, 1901)
Pales funesta (Hutton, 1901)
Pales marginata (Hutton, 1901)
Plagiomyia longipes Malloch, 1938
Trigonospila brevifacies (Hardy, 1934)
Uclesiella Malloch, 1938 sp.
De Sassi, C., O. T. Lewis, and J. M. Tylianakis. 2012. Plant-mediated and nonadditive effects of two global change drivers on an insect herbivore community. Ecology 93:18921901.
Ewers, R. M., A. D. Kliskey, S. Walker, D. Rutledge, J. S. Harding, and R. K. Didham. 2006. Past and future trajectories of forest loss in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 133:312325.
Kaartinen, R., G. N. Stone, J. Hearn, K. Lohse, and T. Roslin. 2010. Revealing secret liaisons: DNA barcoding changes our understanding of food webs. Ecological Entomology 35:623638.
Smith, M. A., J. L. Fernández-Triana, E. Eveleigh, J. Gómez, C. Guclu, W. Hallwachs, P. D. N. Hebert, J. Hrcek, J. T. Huber, D. Janzen, P. G. Mason, S. Miller, D. L. J. Quicke, J. J. Rodriguez, R. Rougerie, M. R. Shaw, G. Várkonyi, D. F. Ward, J. B. Whitfield, and A. Zaldívar-Riverón. 2013. DNA barcoding and the taxonomy of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae): impacts after 8 years and nearly 20.000 sequences. Molecular Ecology 13:168176.
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