Supplementary references

  1. Adler, A., A. Karacic, and M. Weih. 2008. Biomass allocation and nutrient use in fast-growing woody and herbaceous perennials used for phytoremediation. Plant and Soil 305:189-206.
  2. Aerts, R. 2009. Nitrogen supply effects on leaf dynamics and nutrient input into the soil of plant species in a sub-arctic tundra ecosystem. Polar Biology 32:207-214.
  3. Aerts, R., H. De Caluwe, and B. Beltman. 2003a. Is the relation between nutrient supply and biodiversity co-determined by the type of nutrient limitation? Oikos 101:489-498.
  4. Aerts, R., H. De Caluwe, and B. Beltman. 2003b. Plant community mediated vs. nutritional controls on litter decomposition rates in grasslands. Ecology 84:3198-3208.
  5. Aerts, R., and H. Decaluwe. 1989. Above-ground productivity and nutrient turnover of Molinia caerulea along an experimental gradient of nutrient availabilit. Oikos 54:320-324.
  6. Aerts, R., and H. deCaluwe. 1997. Initial litter respiration as indicator for long-term leaf litter decomposition of Carex species. Oikos 80:353-361.
  7. Aerts, R., R. van Logtestijn, and P. S. Karlsson. 2006. Nitrogen supply differentially affects litter decomposition rates and nitrogen dynamics of sub-arctic bog species. Oecologia 146:652-658.
  8. Aerts, R., B. Wallen, N. Malmer, and H. De Caluwe. 2001. Nutritional constraints on Sphagnum-growth and potential decay in northern peatlands. Journal of Ecology 89:292-299.
  9. Agren, G. I., and M. Weih. 2012. Plant stoichiometry at different scales: Element concentration patterns reflect environment more than genotype. New Phytologist 194:944-952.
  10. Ahlstrom, K., H. Persson, and I. Borjesson. 1988. Fertilization in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand: Effects on fine roots. Plant and Soil 106:179-190.
  11. Ahrestani, F. S., I. M. A. Heitkonig, and H. H. T. Prins. 2011. Herbaceous production in south India-limiting factors and implications for large herbivores. Plant and Soil 349:319-330.
  12. Albaugh, T. J., H. L. Allen, and T. R. Fox. 2008. Nutrient use and uptake in Pinus taeda. Tree Physiology 28:1083-1098.
  13. Ali, M. A., J. Louche, E. Legname, M. Duchemin, and C. Plassard. 2009. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils. Tree Physiology 29:1587-1597.
  14. Allard, V., C. Robin, P. C. D. Newton, M. Lieffering, and J. F. Soussana. 2006. Short and long-term effects of elevated CO2 on Lolium perenne rhizodeposition and its consequences on soil organic matter turnover and plant N yield. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38:1178-1187.
  15. Allen, M. F., E. B. Allen, J. L. Lansing, K. S. Pregitzer, R. L. Hendrick, R. W. Ruess, and S. L. Collins. 2010. Responses to chronic N fertilization of ectomycorrhizal pinon but not arbuscular mycorrhizal juniper in a pinon-juniper woodland. Journal of Arid Environments 74:1170-1176.
  16. An, Z., N. I. U. DeCao, H. Wen, Y. Yang, H. Zhang, and H. Fu. 2011. Effects of N addition on nutrient resorption efficiency and C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics in Stipa bungeana of steppe grasslands in the Loess Plateau,China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 35:801-807.
  17. Andersen, K. M., M. D. Corre, B. L. Turner, and J. W. Dalling. 2010. Plant-soil associations in a lower montane tropical forest: Physiological acclimation and herbivore-mediated responses to nitrogen addition. Functional Ecology 24:1171-1180.
  18. Anderson, W. B., and W. G. Eickmeier. 1998. Physiological and morphological responses to shade and nutrient additions of Claytonia virginica (Portulacaceae): Implications for the "vernal dam" hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Botany 76:1340-1349.
  19. Anten, N. P. R., T. Hirose, Y. Onoda, T. Kinugasa, H. Y. Kim, M. Okada, and K. Kobayashi. 2004. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen availability have interactive effects on canopy carbon gain in rice. New Phytologist 161:459-471.
  20. Arnone, J. A., and G. Hirschel. 1997. Does fertilizer application alter the effects of elevated CO2 on Carex leaf litter quality and in situ decomposition in an alpine grassland? Acta Oecologica 18:201-206.
  21. Bassin, S., J. Schalajda, A. Vogel, and M. Suter. 2012. Different types of sub-alpine grassland respond similarly to elevated nitrogen deposition in terms of productivity and sedge abundance. Journal of Vegetation Science 23:1024-1034.
  22. Bauer, G. A., G. M. Berntson, and F. A. Bazzaz. 2001. Regenerating temperate forests under elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition: Comparing biochemical and stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. New Phytologist 152:249-266.
  23. Bauhus, J., I. Aubin, C. Messier, and M. Connell. 2001. Composition, structure, light attenuation and nutrient content of the understorey vegetation in a Eucalyptus sieberi regrowth stand 6 years after thinning and fertilisation. Forest Ecology and Management 144:275-286.
  24. Belanger, G., and J. E. Richards. 2000. Dynamics of biomass and N accumulation of alfalfa under three N fertilization rates. Plant and Soil 219:177-185.
  25. Bennett, J. N., L. L. Blevins, J. E. Barker, D. P. Blevins, and C. E. Prescott. 2003. Increases in tree growth and nutrient supply still apparent 10 to 13 years following fertilization and vegetation control of salal-dominated cedar-hemlock stands on Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:1516-1524.
  26. Berendse, F., N. Van Breemen, H. Rydin, A. Buttler, M. Heijmans, M. R. Hoosbeek, J. A. Lee, E. Mitchell, T. Saarinen, H. Vasander, and B. Wallen. 2001. Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs. Global Change Biology 7:591-598.
  27. Birge, Z. K. D., K. F. Salifu, and D. F. Jacobs. 2006. Modified exponential nitrogen loading to promote morphological quality and nutrient storage of bareroot-cultured Quercus rubra and Quercus alba seedlings. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 21:306-316.
  28. Birk, E. M., and P. M. Vitousek. 1986. Nitrogen availability and nitrogen use efficiency in Loblolly pine stands. Ecology 67:69-79.
  29. Blanes, M. C., B. A. Emmett, B. Vinegla, and J. A. Carreira. 2012. Alleviation of P limitation makes tree roots competitive for N against microbes in a N-saturated conifer forest: A test through P fertilization and 15N labelling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 48:51-59.
  30. Blanke, V., S. Bassin, M. Volk, and J. Fuhrer. 2012. Nitrogen deposition effects on subalpine grassland: The role of nutrient limitations and changes in mycorrhizal abundance. Acta Oecologica 45:57-65.
  31. Blanke, V., M. Wagner, C. Renker, H. Lippert, M. Michulitz, A. J. Kuhn, and F. Buscot. 2011. Arbuscular mycorrhizas in phosphate-polluted soil: Interrelations between root colonization and nitrogen. Plant and Soil 343:379-392.
  32. Blum, H., G. Hendrey, and J. Nosberger. 1997. Effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization, and cutting regime on the production and quality of Lolium perenne L. shoot necromass. Acta Oecologica 18:291-295.
  33. Bobbink, R. 1991. Effects of nutrient enrichment in Dutch chalk grassland. Journal of Applied Ecology 28:28-41.
  34. Boeye, D., B. Verhagen, V. Van Haesebroeck, and M. El-Kahloun. 1999. Phosphorus fertilization in a phosphorus-limited fen: Effects of timing. Applied Vegetation Science 2:71-78.
  35. Boeye, D., B. Verhagen, V. VanHaesebroeck, and R. F. Verheyen. 1997. Nutrient limitation in species-rich lowland fens. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:415-424.
  36. Boggs, J. L., S. G. McNulty, M. J. Gavazzi, and J. M. Myers. 2005. Tree growth, foliar chemistry, and nitrogen cycling across a nitrogen deposition gradient in southern Appalachian deciduous forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:1901-1913.
  37. Bonnett, S. A. F., N. Ostle, and C. Freeman. 2010. Short-term effect of deep shade and enhanced nitrogen supply on Sphagnum capillifolium morphophysiology. Plant Ecology 207:347-358.
  38. Booker, F. L., and C. A. Maier. 2001. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, irrigation, and fertilization effects on phenolic and nitrogen concentrations in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) needles. Tree Physiology 21:609-616.
  39. Bowman, W. D. 1994. Accumulation and use of nitrogen and phosphorus following fertilization in two alpine tundra communities. Oikos 70:261-270.
  40. Bowman, W. D. 2000. Biotic controls over ecosystem response to environmental change in alpine tundra of the Rocky Mountains. Ambio 29:396-400.
  41. Bowman, W. D., and C. J. Bilbrough. 2001. Influence of a pulsed nitrogen supply on growth and nitrogen uptake in alpine graminoids. Plant and Soil 233:283-290.
  42. Bowman, W. D., and R. T. Conant. 1994. Shoot growth dynamics and photosynthetic response to increased nitrogen availability in the alpine willow Salix glauca. Oecologia 97:93-99.
  43. Bowman, W. D., J. R. Gartner, K. Holland, and M. Wiedermann. 2006. Nitrogen critical loads for alpine vegetation and terrestrial ecosystem response: Are we there yet? Ecological Applications 16:1183-1193.
  44. Bowman, W. D., J. Murgel, T. Blett, and E. Porter. 2012. Nitrogen critical loads for alpine vegetation and soils in Rocky Mountain National Park. Journal of Environmental Management 103:165-171.
  45. Bowman, W. D., T. A. Theodose, and M. C. Fisk. 1995. Physiological and production responses of plant growth forms to increases in limiting resources in alpine tundra: Implications for differential community response to environmental change. Oecologia 101:217-227.
  46. Bowman, W. D., T. A. Theodose, J. C. Schardt, and R. T. Conant. 1993. Constraints of nutrient availability on primary production in 2 alpine tundra communities. Ecology 74:2085-2097.
  47. Boyer, K. E., and J. B. Zedler. 1999. Nitrogen addition could shift plant community composition in a restored California salt marsh. Restoration Ecology 7:74-85.
  48. Breeuwer, A., M. M. P. D. Heijmans, M. Gleichman, B. J. M. Robroek, and F. Berendse. 2009. Response of Sphagnum species mixtures to increased temperature and nitrogen availability. Plant Ecology 204:97-111.
  49. Britton, A. J., R. C. Helliwell, J. M. Fisher, and S. Gibbs. 2008. Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition and fire on plant and soil chemistry in an alpine heathland. Environmental Pollution 156:409-416.
  50. Bubier, J. L., R. Smith, S. Juutinen, T. R. Moore, R. Minocha, S. Long, and S. Minocha. 2011. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs. Oecologia 167:355-368.
  51. Bucci, S. J., F. G. Scholz, G. Goldstein, F. C. Meinzer, A. C. Franco, P. I. Campanello, R. Villalobos-Vega, M. Bustamante, and F. Miralles-Wilhelm. 2006. Nutrient availability constrains the hydraulic architecture and water relations of savannah trees. Plant Cell and Environment 29:2153-2167.
  52. Bungard, R. A., M. C. Press, and J. D. Scholes. 2000. The influence of nitrogen on rain forest dipterocarp seedlings exposed to a large increase in irradiance. Plant Cell and Environment 23:1183-1194.
  53. Burslem, D. F. R. P., P. J. Grubb, and I. M. Turner. 1995. Responses to nutrient addition among shade-tolerant tree seedlings of lowland tropical rain forest in Singapore. Journal of Ecology 83:113-122.
  54. Burton, A. J., J. C. Jarvey, M. P. Jarvi, D. R. Zak, and K. S. Pregitzer. 2012. Chronic N deposition alters root respiration-tissue N relationship in northern hardwood forests. Global Change Biology 18:258-266.
  55. Calfapietra, C., I. Tulva, E. Eensalu, M. Perez, P. de Angelis, G. Scarascia-Mugnozza, and O. Kull. 2005. Canopy profiles of photosynthetic parameters under elevated CO2 and N fertilization in a poplar plantation. Environmental Pollution 137:525-535.
  56. Cambridge, M. L., and G. A. Kendrick. 2009. Contrasting responses of seagrass transplants (Posidonia Australis) to nitrogen, phosphorus and iron addition in an estuary and a coastal embayment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 371:34-41.
  57. Campbell, D. R., C. A. Wu, and S. E. Travers. 2010. Photosynthetic and growth responses of reciprocal hybrids to variation in water and nitrogen availability. American Journal of Botany 97:925-933.
  58. Campo, J., and R. Dirzo. 2003. Leaf quality and herbivory responses to soil nutrient addition in secondary tropical dry forests of Yucatan, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19:525-530.
  59. Campo, J., E. Solis, and M. G. Valencia. 2007. Litter N and P dynamics in two secondary tropical dry forests after relaxation of nutrient availability constraints. Forest Ecology and Management 252:33-40.
  60. Cao, T., B. C. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Shackel, and T. M. Dejong. 2011. Influence of mineral nutrients and freezing-thawing on peach susceptibility to bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Syringae. Fruits 66:441-452.
  61. Caporn, S. J. M., A. L. Brooks, M. C. Press, and J. A. Lee. 1999. Effects of long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and increased nutrient supply on bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). Functional Ecology 13:107-115.
  62. Cease, A. J., J. J. Elser, C. F. Ford, S. G. Hao, L. Kang, and J. F. Harrison. 2012. Heavy livestock grazing promotes locust outbreaks by lowering plant nitrogen content. Science 335:467-469.
  63. Cernusak, L. A., K. Winter, C. Martinez, E. Correa, J. Aranda, M. Garcia, C. Jaramillo, and B. L. Turner. 2011. Responses of legume versus nonlegume tropical tree seedlings to elevated CO2 concentration. Plant Physiology 157:372-385.
  64. Chapin, F. S., G. R. Shaver, A. E. Giblin, K. J. Nadelhoffer, and J. A. Laundre. 1995. Responses of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate. Ecology 76:694-711.
  65. Chen, F.-S., K. J. Niklas, G.-S. Chen, and D. Guo. 2012. Leaf traits and relationships differ with season as well as among species groupings in a managed Southeastern China forest landscape. Plant Ecology 213:1489-1502.
  66. Chen, F.-S., D.-H. Zeng, T. J. Fahey, C.-Y. Yao, and Z.-Y. Yu. 2010a. Response of leaf anatomy of Chenopodium acuminatum to soil resource availability in a semi-arid grassland. Plant Ecology 209:375-382.
  67. Chen, F. S., X. F. Hu, and G. Ge. 2007. Leaf N:P stoichiometry and nutrient resorption efficiency of Ophiopogon japonicus in Nanchang City. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 16:47-54.
  68. Chen, G. P., L. Cheng, J. G. Zhu, J. Pang, Z. B. Xie, and Q. Zeng. 2006. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on root characteristics and C:N ratio of rice at the heading stage. Chinese Journal of Rice Science 13:120-124.
  69. Chen, H. J., I. A. Mendelssohn, B. Lorenzen, H. Brix, and S. L. Miao. 2008. Effects of phosphate availability and redox intensity on growth and nutrient uptake of Rhynchospora tracyi, a wet prairie species in the everglades. Wetlands 28:151-163.
  70. Chen, L., J. Zhao, R. Zhang, S. Wang, and G. Wang. 2010b. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on legumes in Potentilla fruticosa shrub in alpine meadow. Ecologic Science 29:512-517.
  71. Chen, S. P., Y. F. Bai, L. X. Zhang, and X. G. Han. 2005. Comparing physiological responses of two dominant grass species to nitrogen addition in Xilin River basin of China. Environmental and Experimental Botany 53:65-75.
  72. Choi, W. J., S. X. Chang, H. L. Allen, D. L. Kelting, and H. M. Ro. 2005. Irrigation and fertilization effects on foliar and soil carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a loblolly pine stand. Forest Ecology and Management 213:90-101.
  73. Chu, C. C., C. B. Field, and H. A. Mooney. 1996. Effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on tissue quality of two California annuals. Oecologia 107:433-440.
  74. Churchland, C., L. Mayo-Bruinsma, A. Ronson, and P. Grogan. 2010. Soil microbial and plant community responses to single large carbon and nitrogen additions in low arctic tundra. Plant and Soil 334:409-421.
  75. Clark, C. M., S. E. Hobbie, R. Venterea, and D. Tilman. 2009. Long-lasting effects on nitrogen cycling 12 years after treatments cease despite minimal long-term nitrogen retention. Global Change Biology 15:1755-1766.
  76. Cleland, E. E., N. R. Chiariello, S. R. Loarie, H. A. Mooney, and C. B. Field. 2006. Diverse responses of phenology to global changes in a grassland ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:13740-13744.
  77. Clemmensen, K. E., A. Michelsen, S. Jonasson, and G. R. Shaver. 2006. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems. New Phytologist 171:391-404.
  78. Close, D. C., C. McArthur, E. Pietrzykowski, H. Fitzgerald, and S. Paterson. 2004. Evaluating effects of nursery and post-planting nutrient regimes on leaf chemistry and browsing of eucalypt seedlings in plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 200:101-112.
  79. Conroy, J. P., P. J. Milham, and E. W. R. Barlow. 1992. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on the growth-response of Eucalyptus grandis to high CO2. Plant Cell and Environment 15:843-847.
  80. Constable, J. V. H., M. E. Litvak, J. P. Greenberg, and R. K. Monson. 1999. Monoterpene emission from coniferous trees in response to elevated CO2 concentration and climate warming. Global Change Biology 5:255-267.
  81. Cordell, S., G. Goldstein, F. C. Meinzer, and P. M. Vitousek. 2001a. Morphological and physiological adjustment to N and P fertilization in nutrient-limited Metrosideros polymorpha canopy trees in Hawaii. Tree Physiology 21:43-50.
  82. Cordell, S., G. Goldstein, F. C. Meinzer, and P. M. Vitousek. 2001b. Regulation of leaf life-span and nutrient-use efficiency of Metrosideros polymorpha trees at two extremes of a long chronosequence in Hawaii. Oecologia 127:198-206.
  83. Cotrufo, M. E., and P. Ineson. 1995. Effects of enhanced atmospheric CO2 and nutrient supply on the quality and subsequent decomposition of fine roots of Betula pendula roth and Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr. Plant and Soil 170:267-277.
  84. Cotrufo, M. F., and P. Ineson. 1996. Elevated CO2 reduces field decomposition rates of Betula pendula (Roth) leaf litter. Oecologia 106:525-530.
  85. Craine, J. M., C. Morrow, and W. D. Stock. 2008. Nutrient concentration ratios and co-limitation in south African grasslands. New Phytologist 179:829-836.
  86. Cronin, G., and D. M. Lodge. 2003. Effects of light and nutrient availability on the growth, allocation, carbon/nitrogen balance, phenolic chemistry, and resistance to herbivory of two freshwater macrophytes. Oecologia 137:32-41.
  87. Crous, J. W., A. R. Morris, and M. C. Scholes. 2011. Changes in topsoil, standing litter and tree nutrient content of a Pinus patula plantation after phosphorus and potassium fertilization. European Journal of Forest Research 130:277-292.
  88. Crous, K. Y., P. B. Reich, M. D. Hunter, and D. S. Ellsworth. 2010. Maintenance of leaf N controls the photosynthetic CO2 response of grassland species exposed to 9 years of free-air CO2 enrichment. Global Change Biology 16:2076-2088.
  89. Cuevas-Reyes, P., F. T. De Oliveira-Ker, G. W. Fernandes, and M. Bustamante. 2011. Abundance of gall-inducing insect species in sclerophyllous savanna: Understanding the importance of soil fertility using an experimental approach. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27:631-640.
  90. Cui, Q. A., X. T. Lu, Q. B. Wang, and X. G. Han. 2010. Nitrogen fertilization and fire act independently on foliar stoichiometry in a temperate steppe. Plant and Soil 334:209-219.
  91. Currie, W. S., M. E. Harmon, I. C. Burke, S. C. Hart, W. J. Parton, and W. Silver. 2010. Cross-biome transplants of plant litter show decomposition models extend to a broader climatic range but lose predictability at the decadal time scale. Global Change Biology 16:1744-1761.
  92. Curtis, C., T. Allott, J. Hall, R. Harriman, R. Helliwell, M. Hughes, M. Kernan, B. Reynolds, and J. Ullyett. 2000a. Critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen for freshwaters in Great Britain and assessment of deposition reduction requirements with the First-order Acidity Balance (FAB) model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4:125-140.
  93. Curtis, P. S., C. S. Vogel, K. S. Pregitzer, D. R. Zak, and J. A. Teeri. 1995. Interacting effects of soil fertility and atmospheric CO2 on leaf-area growth and carbon gain physiology in Populus x Euramericana (Dode) Guinier. New Phytologist 129:253-263.
  94. Curtis, P. S., C. S. Vogel, X. Z. Wang, K. S. Pregitzer, D. R. Zak, J. Lussenhop, M. Kubiske, and J. A. Teeri. 2000b. Gas exchange, leaf nitrogen, and growth efficiency of Populus tremuloides in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Ecological Applications 10:3-17.
  95. Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, M. S. Torn, and W. H. McDowell. 2011. Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests. Biogeochemistry 104:203-225.
  96. D'Antonio, C. M., and M. C. Mack. 2006. Nutrient limitation in a fire-derived, nitrogen-rich Hawaiian grassland. Biotropica 38:458-467.
  97. da Silva, L., P. E. R. Marchiori, C. P. Maciel, E. C. Machado, and R. V. Ribeiro. 2010. Photosynthesis, water relations and growth of young coffee plants according to phosphorus availability. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 45:965-972.
  98. Daepp, M., J. Nosberger, and A. Luscher. 2001. Nitrogen fertilization and developmental stage alter the response of Lolium perenne to elevated CO2 New Phytologist 150:347-358.
  99. Daepp, M., D. Suter, J. P. F. Almeida, H. Isopp, U. A. Hartwig, M. Frehner, H. Blum, J. Nosberger, and A. Luscher. 2000. Yield response of Lolium perenne swards to free air CO2 enrichment increased over six years in a high N input system on fertile soil. Global Change Biology 6:805-816.
  100. Dalen, L. S., and O. Johnsen. 2004. CO2 enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and development of freezing tolerance in Norway spruce. Trees-Structure and Function 18:10-18.
  101. Davis, M. R., R. B. Allen, and P. W. Clinton. 2004. The influence of N addition on nutrient content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, and productivity in a nothofagus forest during stand development. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34:2037-2048.
  102. Day, T. A., C. T. Ruhland, and F. S. Xiong. 2008. Warming increases aboveground plant biomass and C stocks in vascular-plant-dominated antarctic tundra. Global Change Biology 14:1827-1843.
  103. de Graaff, M. A., J. Six, D. Harris, H. Blum, and C. van Kessel. 2004. Decomposition of soil and plant carbon from pasture systems after 9 years of exposure to elevated CO2: Impact on C cycling and modeling. Global Change Biology 10:1922-1935.
  104. de Graaff, M. A., C. van Kessel, and J. Six. 2009. Rhizodeposition-induced decomposition increases N availability to wild and cultivated wheat genotypes under elevated CO2. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41:1094-1103.
  105. Del Pozo, A., P. Perez, D. Gutierrez, A. Alonso, R. Morcuende, and R. Martinez-Carrasco. 2007. Gas exchange acclimation to elevated CO2 in upper-sunlit and lower-shaded canopy leaves in relation to nitrogen acquisition and partitioning in wheat grown in field chambers. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59:371-380.
  106. Denslow, J. S., J. C. Schultz, P. M. Vitousek, and B. R. Strain. 1990. Growth responses of tropical shrubs to treefall gap environments. Ecology 71:165-179.
  107. Denslow, J. S., P. M. Vitousek, and J. C. Schultz. 1987. Bioassays of nutrient limitation in a tropical rain forest soil. Oecologia 74:370-376.
  108. Dias, T., S. Oakley, E. Alarcon-Gutierrez, F. Ziarelli, H. Trindade, M. Martins-Loucao, Amelia, L. Sheppard, N. Ostle, and C. Cruz. 2013. N-driven changes in a plant community affect leaf-litter traits and may delay organic matter decomposition in a Mediterranean maquis. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 58:163-171.
  109. Dighton, J., A. R. Tuininga, D. M. Gray, R. E. Huskins, and T. Belton. 2004. Impacts of atmospheric deposition on New Jersey pine barrens forest soils and communities of ectomycorrhizae. Forest Ecology and Management 201:133-144.
  110. Ding, W. X., H. Y. Yu, Z. C. Cai, F. X. Han, and Z. H. Xu. 2010. Responses of soil respiration to N fertilization in a loamy soil under maize cultivation. Geoderma 155:381-389.
  111. Donaldson, J. R., E. L. Kruger, and R. L. Lindroth. 2006. Competition- and resource-mediated tradeoffs between growth and defensive chemistry in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). New Phytologist 169:561-570.
  112. Drenovsky, R. E., and J. H. Richards. 2004. Critical N:P values: Predicting nutrient deficiencies in desert shrublands. Plant and Soil 259:59-69.
  113. Drenovsky, R. E., and J. H. Richards. 2005. Nitrogen addition increases fecundity in the desert shrub Sarcobatus vermiculatus. Oecologia 143:349-356.
  114. Edmondson, J., E. Terribile, J. A. Carroll, E. A. C. Price, and S. J. M. Caporn. 2013. The legacy of nitrogen pollution in heather moorlands: Ecosystem response to simulated decline in nitrogen deposition over seven years. Science of the Total Environment 444:138-144.
  115. Edwards, E. J., S. McCaffery, and J. Evans. 2005. Phosphorus status determines biomass response to elevated CO2 in a legume: C4 grass community. Global Change Biology 11:1968-1981.
  116. Edwards, E. J., S. McCaffery, and J. R. Evans. 2006. Phosphorus availability and elevated CO2 affect biological nitrogen fixation and nutrient fluxes in a clover-dominated sward. New Phytologist 169:157-167.
  117. Eguchi, N., E. Fukatsu, R. Funada, H. Tobita, M. Kitao, Y. Maruyama, and T. Koike. 2004. Changes in morphology, anatomy, and photosynthetic capacity of needles of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) seedlings grown in high CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetica 42:173-178.
  118. El-Hajj, Z., K. Kavanagh, C. Rose, and Z. Kanaan-Atallah. 2004. Nitrogen and carbon dynamics of a foliar biotrophic fungal parasite in fertilized Douglas-fir. New Phytologist 163:139-147.
  119. Elkohen, A., H. Rouhier, and M. Mousseau. 1992. Changes in dry-weight and nitrogen partitioning induced by elevated CO2 depend on soil nutrient availability in sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill). Annales Des Sciences Forestieres 49:83-90.
  120. Elvir, J. A., G. B. Wiersma, M. E. Day, M. S. Greenwood, and I. J. Fernandez. 2006. Effects of enhanced nitrogen deposition on foliar chemistry and physiological processes of forest trees at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine. Forest Ecology and Management 221:207-214.
  121. Evans, C. A., E. K. Miller, and A. J. Friedland. 2001. Effect of nitrogen and light on nutrient concentrations and associated physiological responses in birch and fir seedlings. Plant and Soil 236:197-207.
  122. Fahey, T. J., J. J. Battles, and G. F. Wilson. 1998. Responses of early successional northern hardwood forests to changes in nutrient availability. Ecological Monographs 68:183-212.
  123. Falk, K., U. Friedrich, G. von Oheimb, K. Mischke, K. Merkle, H. Meyer, and W. Hardtle. 2010. Molinia caerulea responses to N and P fertilisation in a dry heathland ecosystem (NW Germany). Plant Ecology 209:47-56.
  124. Fan, H. B., W. F. Liu, L. Xu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Chun, Q. Q. Wang, and Z. W. Zhang. 2008. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of decomposing foliar litter in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation exposed to simulated nitrogen deposition. Acta Ecologica Sinica 28:2546-2553.
  125. Fang, H. J., G. R. Yu, S. L. Cheng, J. M. Mo, J. H. Yan, and S. G. Li. 2009. 13C abundance, water-soluble and microbial biomass carbon as potential indicators of soil organic carbon dynamics in subtropical forests at different successional stages and subject to different nitrogen loads. Plant and Soil 320:243-254.
  126. Fang, Y., F. Xun, W. M. Bai, W. H. Zhang, and L. H. Li. 2012. Long term nitrogen addition leads to loss of species richness due to litter accumulation and soil acidification in a temperate steppe. Plos One 7.
  127. Fangmeier, A., U. Gruters, P. Hogy, B. Vermehren, and H. J. Jager. 1997. Effects of elevated CO2 nitrogen supply and tropospheric ozone on spring wheat .II. Nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn). Environmental Pollution 96:43-59.
  128. Feller, I. C. 1995. Effects of nutrient enrichment on growth and herbivory of dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Ecological Monographs 65:477-505.
  129. Feller, I. C., C. E. Lovelock, and K. L. McKee. 2007. Nutrient addition differentially affects ecological processes of avicennia germinans in nitrogen versus phosphorus limited mangrove ecosystems. Ecosystems 10:347-359.
  130. Feller, I. C., C. E. Lovelock, and C. Piou. 2009. Growth and nutrient conservation in Rhizophora mangle in response to fertilization along latitudinal and tidal gradients. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:345-358.
  131. Feller, I. C., K. L. McKee, D. F. Whigham, and J. P. O'Neill. 2002. Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest. Biogeochemistry 62:145-175.
  132. Feller, I. C., D. F. Whigham, K. L. McKee, and C. E. Lovelock. 2003. Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian river lagoon, Florida. Oecologia 134:405-414.
  133. Feller, I. C., D. F. Whigham, J. P. O'Neill, and K. L. McKee. 1999. Effects of nutrient enrichment on within-stand cycling in a mangrove forest. Ecology 80:2193-2205.
  134. Feng, L. 2011. Effects of different nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilization modes on carbon- and nitrogen accumulation and allocation in rice plant. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 22:2615-2621.
  135. Ferdie, M., and J. W. Fourqurean. 2004. Responses of seagrass communities to fertilization along a gradient of relative availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in a carbonate environment. Limnology and Oceanography 49:2082-2094.
  136. Fetcher, N., B. L. Haines, R. A. Cordero, D. J. Lodge, L. R. Walker, D. S. Fernandez, and W. T. Lawrence. 1996. Responses of tropical plants to nutrients and light on a landslide in Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology 84:331-341.
  137. Fisk, M. C., and S. K. Schmidt. 1996. Microbial responses to nitrogen additions in alpine tundra soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 28:751-755.
  138. Forrester, D. I., J. BauhuS, and A. L. Cowie. 2006. Carbon allocation in a mixed-species plantation of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii. Forest Ecology and Management 233:275-284.
  139. Forsum, A., L. Dahlman, T. Nasholm, and A. Nordin. 2006. Nitrogen utilization by Hylocomium splendens in a boreal forest fertilization experiment. Functional Ecology 20:421-426.
  140. Fraterrigo, J. M., S. M. Pearson, and M. Turner, G. 2009. The response of understory herbaceous plants to nitrogen fertilization in forests of different land-use history. Forest Ecology and Management 257:2182-2188.
  141. Frost, J. W., T. Schleicher, and C. Craft. 2009. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on primary production and invertebrate densities in a Georgia (USA) tidal freshwater marsh. Wetlands 29:196-203.
  142. Fujita, Y., B. J. M. Robroek, P. C. de Ruiter, G. W. Heil, and M. J. Wassen. 2010. Increased N affects P uptake of eight grassland species: The role of root surface phosphatase activity. Oikos 119:1665-1673.
  143. Funk, J. L. 2005. Hedychium gardnerianum invasion into Hawaiian montane rainforest: interactions among litter quality, decomposition rate, and soil nitrogen availability. Biogeochemistry 76:441-451.
  144. Gallo, M. E., C. L. Lauber, S. E. Cabaniss, M. P. Waldrop, R. L. Sinsabaugh, and D. R. Zak. 2005. Soil organic matter and litter chemistry response to experimental N deposition in northern temperate deciduous forest ecosystems. Global Change Biology 11:1514-1521.
  145. Gao, C. F., H. B. Fan, and W. F. Liu. 2009. Macronutrient concentrations and fluxes in the litterfall of Chinese fir in response to simulated nitrogen deposition. Journal of Fujian College of Forestry 29:237-242.
  146. Garcia-Palacios, P., J. I. Querejeta, F. T. Maestre, A. Escudero, and F. Valladares. 2012. Impact of simulated changes in rainfall regime and nutrient deposition on the relative dominance and isotopic composition of ruderal plants in anthropogenic grasslands. Plant and Soil 352:303-319.
  147. Garten, C. T., D. J. Brice, H. F. Castro, R. L. Graham, M. A. Mayes, J. R. Phillips, W. M. Post, C. W. Schadt, S. D. Wullschleger, D. D. Tyler, P. M. Jardine, J. D. Jastrow, R. Matamala, R. M. Miller, K. K. Moran, T. W. Vugteveen, R. C. Izaurralde, A. M. Thomson, T. O. West, J. E. Amonette, V. L. Bailey, F. B. Metting, and J. L. Smith. 2011. Response of "alamo" switchgrass tissue chemistry and biomass to nitrogen fertilization in west tennessee, USA. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 140:289-297.
  148. Gebauer, G., B. Schubert, M. I. Schuhmacher, H. Rehder, and H. Ziegler. 1987. Biomass production and nitrogen content of C3- and C4- grasses in pure and mixed culture with different nitrogen supply. Oecologia 71:613-617.
  149. Gerdol, R., L. Brancaleoni, R. Marchesini, and L. Bragazza. 2002. Nutrient and carbon relations in subalpine dwarf shrubs after neighbour removal or fertilization in northern Italy. Oecologia 130:476-483.
  150. Gerdol, R., A. Petraglia, L. Bragazza, P. Iacumin, and L. Brancaleoni. 2007. Nitrogen deposition interacts with climate in affecting production and decomposition rates in Sphagnum mosses. Global Change Biology 13:1810-1821.
  151. Gifford, R. M., D. J. Barrett, and J. L. Lutze. 2000. The effects of elevated [CO2] on the C:N and C:P mass ratios of plant tissues. Plant and Soil 224:1-14.
  152. Gleeson, S. K., and R. E. Good. 2003. Root allocation and multiple nutrient limitation in the New Jersey pinelands. Ecology Letters 6:220-227.
  153. Gloser, J. 2000. Nitrogen and base cation uptake in seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus and Calamagrostis villosa exposed to an acidified environment a1 - gloser,v. Plant and Soil 226:71-77.
  154. Gordon, C., J. M. Wynn, and S. J. Woodin. 2001. Impacts of increased nitrogen supply on high arctic heath: The importance of bryophytes and phosphorus availability. New Phytologist 149:461-471.
  155. Gough, C. M., J. R. Seiler, K. H. Johnsen, and D. A. Sampson. 2004. Seasonal photosynthesis in fertilized and nonfertilized loblolly pine. Forest Science 50:1-9.
  156. Goverde, M., A. Erhardt, and J. Stocklin. 2004. Genotype-specific response of a lycaenid herbivore to elevated carbon dioxide and phosphorus availability in calcareous grassland. Oecologia 139:383-391.
  157. Graciano, C., J. Goya, F., J. L. Frangi, and J. J. Guiamet. 2006. Fertilization with phosphorus increases soil nitrogen absorption in young plants of Eucalyptus grandis. Forest Ecology and Management 236:202-210.
  158. Gradowski, T., and S. C. Thomas. 2006. Phosphorus limitation of sugar maple growth in central Ontario. Forest Ecology and Management 226:104-109.
  159. Gradowski, T., and S. C. Thomas. 2008. Responses of Acer saccharum canopy trees and saplings to P, K and lime additions under high N deposition. Tree Physiology 28:173-185.
  160. Graglia, E., R. Julkunen-Tiitto, G. R. Shaver, I. K. Schmidt, S. Jonasson, and A. Michelsen. 2001. Environmental control and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems. New Phytologist 151:227-236.
  161. Grassi, G., P. Meir, R. Cromer, D. Tompkins, and P. G. Jarvis. 2002. Photosynthetic parameters in seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis as affected by rate of nitrogen supply. Plant Cell and Environment 25:1677-1688.
  162. Griffin, K. L., M. A. Bashkin, R. B. Thomas, and B. R. Strain. 1997. Interactive effects of soil nitrogen and atmospheric carbon dioxide on root/rhizosphere carbon dioxide efflux from loblolly and ponderosa pine seedlings. Plant and Soil 190:11-18.
  163. Griffin, K. L., R. B. Thomas, and B. R. Strain. 1993. Effects of nitrogen supply and elevated carbon-dioxide on construction cost in leaves of Pinus taeda (L.) seedlings. Oecologia 95:575-580.
  164. Griffin, K. L., W. E. Winner, and B. R. Strain. 1995. Growth and dry-matter partitioning in loblolly and ponderosa pine-seedlings in response to carbon and nitrogen availability. New Phytologist 129:547-556.
  165. Griffin, K. L., W. E. Winner, and B. R. Strain. 1996. Construction cost of loblolly and ponderosa pine leaves grown with varying carbon and nitrogen availability. Plant Cell and Environment 19:729-739.
  166. Guo, S.-L., X.-F. Yan, B. Bai, and S. Yu. 2005. Carbon and nitrogen acquisition and allocation in larch seedlings in response to different N supply rates. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 29:550-558.
  167. Guo, Z., M. Yu, L. Zheng, Q. Yang, Y. Li, and S. Chen. 2011. Stoichiometry of C, N and P in Phyllostachys iridescens leaves under long-term application of different fertilizers. Chinese Journal of Ecology 30:2667-2671.
  168. Gusewell, S., W. Koerselman, and J. T. A. Verhoeven. 2002. Time-dependent effects of fertilization on plant biomass in floating fens. Journal of Vegetation Science 13:705-718.
  169. Gusewell, S., W. Koerselman, and J. T. A. Verhoeven. 2003. Biomass N:P ratios as indicators of nutrient limitation for plant populations in wetlands. Ecological Applications 13:372-384.
  170. Gusewell, S., and C. Le Nedic. 2004. Effects of winter mowing on vegetation succession in a lakeshore fen. Applied Vegetation Science 7:41-48.
  171. Hansen, A. H., S. Jonasson, A. Michelsen, and R. Julkunen-Tiitto. 2006. Long-term experimental warming, shading and nutrient addition affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in arctic-alpine deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs. Oecologia 147:1-11.
  172. Harrington, R. A., J. H. Fownes, and T. M. Cassidy. 2004. Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) in forest understory: Leaf and whole plant responses to nitrogen availability. American Midland Naturalist 151:206-216.
  173. Hartley, S. E., S. M. Gardner, and R. J. Mitchell. 2003. Indirect effects of grazing and nutrient addition on the hemipteran community of heather moorlands. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:793-803.
  174. Hartwig, U. A., P. Wittmann, R. B. Raun, B. Hartwig-Raz, J. Jansa, A. Mozafar, A. Luscher, A. Leuchtmann, E. Frossard, and J. Nosberger. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhiza infection enhances the growth response of Lolium perenne to elevated atmospheric pCO2. Journal of Experimental Botany 53:1207-1213.
  175. Hatcher, P. E., N. D. Paul, P. G. Ayres, and J. B. Whittaker. 1997. Added soil nitrogen does not allow Rumex obtusifolius to escape the effects of insect-fungus interactions. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:88-100.
  176. Hattenschwiler, S., and D. Bretscher. 2001. Isopod effects on decomposition of litter produced under elevated CO2, N deposition and different soil types. Global Change Biology 7:565-579.
  177. Hattenschwiler, S., and C. Korner. 1996. System-level adjustments to elevated CO2 in model spruce ecosystems. Global Change Biology 2:377-387.
  178. Hattenschwiler, S., and C. Korner. 1998. Biomass allocation and canopy development in spruce model ecosystems under elevated CO2 and increased N deposition. Oecologia 113:104-114.
  179. Hattenschwiler, S., and C. Schafellner. 1999. Opposing effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on Lymantria monacha larvae feeding on spruce trees. Oecologia 118:210-217.
  180. Hattenschwiler, S., F. H. Schweingruber, and C. Korner. 1996. Tree ring responses to elevated CO2 and increased N deposition in Picea abies. Plant Cell and Environment 19:1369-1378.
  181. Haubensak, K. A., and C. M. D'Antonio. 2011. The importance of nitrogen-fixation for an invader of a coastal California grassland. Biological Invasions 13:1275-1282.
  182. Hawkins, B. J., D. Burgess, and A. K. Mitchell. 2005. Growth and nutrient dynamics of western hemlock with conventional or exponential greenhouse fertilization and planting in different fertility conditions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:1002-1016.
  183. Hawkins, B. J., G. Henry, and J. King. 2000. Response of western hemlock crosses to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. New Forests 20:135-143.
  184. Heath, J., E. Ayres, M. Possell, R. D. Bardgett, H. I. J. Black, H. Grant, P. Ineson, and G. Kerstiens. 2005. Rising atmospheric CO2 reduces sequestration of root-derived soil carbon. Science 309:1711-1713.
  185. Hebert-Gentile, V., S. K. Naess, L. E. Parent, and L. Lapointe. 2011. Organo-mineral fertilization in natural peatlands of the Quebec north-shore, Canada: Dispersion in soil and effects on cloudberry growth and fruit yield. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science 61:8-17.
  186. Heijmans, M. M. P. D., F. Berendse, W. J. Arp, A. K. Masselink, H. Klees, W. de Visser, and N. van Breemen. 2001. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and increased nitrogen deposition on bog vegetation in the Netherlands. Journal of Ecology 89:268-279.
  187. Heijmans, M. M. P. D., H. Klees, and F. Berendse. 2002a. Competition between Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition. Oikos 97:415-425.
  188. Heijmans, M. M. P. D., H. Klees, W. de Visser, and F. Berendse. 2002b. Response of a Sphagnum bog plant community to elevated CO2 and N supply. Plant Ecology 162:123-134.
  189. Henry, H. A. L., E. E. Cleland, C. B. Field, and P. M. Vitousek. 2005. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on plant litter quality in a California annual grassland. Oecologia 142:465-473.
  190. Herbert, D. A., and J. W. Fourqurean. 2008. Ecosystem structure and function still altered two decades after short-term fertilization of a seagrass meadow. Ecosystems 11:688-700.
  191. Heskel, M. A., O. R. Anderson, O. K. Atkin, M. H. Turnbull, and K. L. Griffin. 2012. Leaf- and cell-level carbon cycling responses to a nitrogen and phosphorus gradient in two Arctic tundra species. American Journal of Botany 99:1702-1714.
  192. Hildebrandt, L. R., J. Pastor, and B. Dewey. 2012. Effects of external and internal nutrient supplies on decomposition of wild rice, Zizania palustris. Aquatic Botany 97:35-43.
  193. Hobbie, S. E., L. Gough, and G. R. Shaver. 2005. Species compositional differences on different-aged glacial landscapes drive contrasting responses of tundra to nutrient addition. Journal of Ecology 93:770-782.
  194. Hobbie, S. E., and P. M. Vitousek. 2000. Nutrient limitation of decomposition in Hawaiian forests. Ecology 81:1867-1877.
  195. Hodge, A., J. Stewart, D. Robinson, B. S. Griffiths, and A. H. Fitter. 2000. Spatial and physical heterogeneity of N supply from soil does not influence N capture by two grass species. Functional Ecology 14:645-653.
  196. Hofland-Zijlstra, J. D., and F. Berendse. 2009. The effect of nutrient supply and light intensity on tannins and mycorrhizal colonisation in Dutch heathland ecosystems. Plant Ecology 201:661-675.
  197. Hogberg, P., H. B. Fan, M. Quist, D. Binkley, and C. O. Tamm. 2006. Tree growth and soil acidification in response to 30 years of experimental nitrogen loading on boreal forest. Global Change Biology 12:489-499.
  198. Holub, P., and I. Tuma. 2010. The effect of enhanced nitrogen on aboveground biomass allocation and nutrient resorption in the fern Athyrium distentifolium. Plant Ecology 207:373-380.
  199. Holub, P., I. Tuma, J. Zahora, and K. Fiala. 2012. Different nutrient use strategies of expansive grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius. Biologia 67:673-680.
  200. Holub, P., and J. Zahora. 2008. Effects of nitrogen addition on nitrogen mineralization and nutrient content of expanding Calamagrostis epigejos in the Podyji National Park, Czech Republic. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science-Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenernahrung Und Bodenkunde 171:795-803.
  201. Hoosbeek, M. R., N. van Breemen, H. Vasander, A. Buttler, and F. Berendse. 2002. Potassium limits potential growth of bog vegetation under elevated atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Global Change Biology 8:1130-1138.
  202. Hu, X. F., F. S. Chen, A. F. Hu, L. Gan, C. Y. Yao, and H. J. Hu. 2007. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on nutrients and N:P stoichiometry in dwarf lilyturf roots. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 15:377-382.
  203. Huang, J. Y., H. L. Yu, B. Wang, L. H. Li, G. J. Xiao, and Z. Y. Yuan. 2012a. Nutrient resorption based on different estimations of five perennial herbaceous species from the grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Arid Environments 76:1-8.
  204. Huang, W. J., G. Y. Zhou, J. X. Liu, D. Q. Zhang, Z. H. Xu, and S. Z. Liu. 2012b. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition on foliar stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorus of five tree species in subtropical model forest ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 168:113-120.
  205. Huber, C., K. Kreutzer, H. Rohle, and A. Rothe. 2004. Response of artificial acid irrigation, liming, and N-fertilisation on elemental concentrations in needles, litter fluxes, volume increment, and crown transparency of a N saturated Norway spruce stand. Forest Ecology and Management 200:3-21.
  206. Huttunen, L., P. J. Aphalo, T. Lehto, P. Niemela, K. Kuokkanen, and S. Kellomaki. 2009. Effects of elevated temperature, elevated CO2 and fertilization on quality and subsequent decomposition of silver birch leaf litter. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41:2414-2421.
  207. Hyvärinen, M., B. Walter, and R. Koopmann. 2003. Impact of fertilisation on phenol content and growth rate of Cladina stellaris: a test of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis. Oecologia 134:176-181.
  208. Ibrahim, M. H., H. Z. E. Jaafar, A. Rahmat, and Z. A. Rahman. 2011a. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume). International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12:5238-5254.
  209. Ibrahim, M. H., H. Z. E. Jaafar, A. Rahmat, and Z. A. Rahman. 2011b. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. Molecules 16:162-174.
  210. Inauen, N., C. Korner, and E. Hiltbrunner. 2012. No growth stimulation by CO2 enrichment in alpine glacier forefield plants. Global Change Biology 18:985-999.
  211. Iversen, C. M., S. D. Bridgham, and L. E. Kellogg. 2010. Scaling plant nitrogen use and uptake efficiencies in response to nutrient addition in peatlands. Ecology 91:693-707.
  212. Iversen, C. M., and R. J. Norby. 2008. Nitrogen limitation in a sweetgum plantation: Implications for carbon allocation and storage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:1021-1032.
  213. Jönsson, A. M., M. Ingerslev, and K. Raulund-Rasmussen. 2004. Frost sensitivity and nutrient status in a fertilized Norway spruce stand in Denmark. Forest Ecology and Management 201:199-209.
  214. Jackson, R. B., and H. L. Reynolds. 1996. Nitrate and ammonium uptake for single- and mixed-species communities grown at elevated CO2. Oecologia 105:74-80.
  215. Jaramillo, V. J., and J. K. Detling. 1992. Small-scale heterogeneity in a semi-arid North. American grassland. I. Tillering, N uptake and retranslocation in simulated urine patches. Journal of Applied Ecology 29:1-8.
  216. Jauhiainen, J., H. Vasander, and J. Silvola. 1998. Nutrient concentration in sphagna at increased N-deposition rates and raised atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Plant Ecology 138:149-160.
  217. Jeyanny, V., S. S. Lee, and K. W. Rasidah. 2011. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilisation on the growth of Acacia mangium seedlings. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23:404-409.
  218. Jiang, Q., J. Tang, X. Chen, J. Chen, R. Yang, and S. Hu. 2005. Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on weeds growth and nitrogen uptake. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 16:951-955.
  219. Johansson, M. 2000. The influence of ammonium nitrate on the root growth and ericoid mycorrhizal colonization of calluna vulgaris (L.) hull from a danish heathland. Oecologia 123:418-424.
  220. Johansson, O., J. Olofsson, R. Giesler, and K. Palmqvist. 2011. Lichen responses to nitrogen and phosphorus additions can be explained by the different symbiont responses. New Phytologist 191:795-805.
  221. Johnson, C. M., D. J. Zarin, and A. H. Johnson. 2000a. Post-disturbance aboveground biomass accumulation in global secondary forests. Ecology 81:1395-1401.
  222. Johnson, D., J. R. Leake, and J. A. Lee. 1999. The effects of quantity and duration of simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition on root-surface phosphatase activities in calcareous and acid grasslands: a bioassay approach. New Phytologist 141:433-442.
  223. Johnson, D. W., J. T. Ball, and R. F. Walker. 1997. Effects of CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on vegetation and soil nutrient content in Juvenile ponderosa pine. Plant and Soil 190:29-40.
  224. Johnson, D. W., W. Cheng, and J. T. Ball. 2000b. Effects of CO2 and N fertilization on decomposition and N immobilization in ponderosa pine litter. Plant and Soil 224:115-122.
  225. Johnson, D. W., A. M. Hoylman, J. T. Ball, and R. F. Walker. 2006. Ponderosa pine responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. Biogeochemistry 77:157-175.
  226. Jongen, M., M. B. Jones, T. Hebeisen, H. Blum, and G. Hendrey. 1995. The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on the root-growth of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens grown in a face system. Global Change Biology 1:361-371.
  227. Jonsson, J. A., and B. D. Sigurdsson. 2010. Effects of early thinning and fertilization on soil temperature and soil respiration in a poplar plantation. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 23:97-109.
  228. Jouquet, P., V. Tavernier, L. Abbadie, and M. Lepage. 2005. Nests of subterranean fungus-growing termites (Isoptera, Macrotermitinae) as nutrient patches for grasses in savannah ecosystems. African Journal of Ecology 43:191-196.
  229. Judd, T. S., L. T. Bennett, C. J. Weston, P. M. Attiwill, and P. H. Whiteman. 1996. The response of growth and foliar nutrients to fertilizers in young Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantations in gippsland, southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 82:87-101.
  230. Jung, J. Y., and R. Lal. 2011. Impacts of nitrogen fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) and changes in soil organic carbon in Ohio. Geoderma 166:145-152.
  231. Kaakinen, S., A. Jolkkonen, S. Iivonen, and E. Vapaavuori. 2004. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season. Tree Physiology 24:707-719.
  232. Kanstrup, M., I. K. Thomsen, A. J. Andersen, A. Bogaard, and B. T. Christensen. 2011. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: Towards a method for identifying past manuring practice. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25:2879-2887.
  233. Karacic, A., and M. Weih. 2006. Variation in growth and resource utilisation among eight poplar clones grown under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes in Sweden. Biomass & Bioenergy 30:115-124.
  234. Kaspari, M., M. N. Garcia, K. E. Harms, M. Santana, S. J. Wright, and J. B. Yavitt. 2008. Multiple nutrients limit litterfall and decomposition in a tropical forest. Ecology Letters 11:35-43.
  235. Kellomaki, S., and K. Y. Wang. 1997. Photosynthetic responses of Scots pine to elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply: Results of a branch-in-bag experiment. Tree Physiology 17:231-240.
  236. Kemp, P. R., D. G. Waldecker, C. E. Owensby, J. F. Reynolds, and R. A. Virginia. 1994. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen-fertilization pretreatments on decomposition on tallgrass prairie leaf-litter. Plant and Soil 165:115-127.
  237. Keski-Saari, S., and R. Julkunen-Tiitto. 2003. Early developmental responses of mountain birch (Betula pubescens Subsp Czerepanovii) seedlings to different concentrations of phosphorus. Tree Physiology 23:1201-1208.
  238. Ket, W. A., J. P. Schubauer-Berigan, and C. B. Craft. 2011. Effects of five years of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on a Zizaniopsis miliacea tidal freshwater marsh. Aquatic Botany 95:17-23.
  239. Kettunen, R., S. Saarnio, P. Martikainen, and J. Silvola. 2005. Elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen fertilisation effects on N2O and CH4 fluxes and biomass production of Phleum pratense on farmed peat soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:739-750.
  240. Kettunen, R., S. Saarnio, P. J. Martikainen, and J. Silvola. 2007a. Can a mixed stand of N2-fixing and non-fixing plants restrict N2O emissions with increasing CO2 concentration? Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39:2538-2546.
  241. Kettunen, R., S. Saarnio, and J. Silvola. 2007b. N2O fluxes and CO2 exchange at different N doses under elevated CO2 concentration in boreal agricultural mineral soil under Phleum pratense. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 78:197-209.
  242. Khurana, E., and J. S. Singh. 2004a. Impact of elevated nitrogen inputs on seedling growth of five dry tropical tree species as affected by life-history traits. Canadian Journal of Botany 82:158-167.
  243. Khurana, E., and J. S. Singh. 2004b. Response of five dry tropical tree seedlings to elevated CO2: Impact of seed size and successional status. New Forests 27:139-157.
  244. King, J. S., H. L. Allen, P. Dougherty, and B. R. Strain. 1997. Decomposition of roots in loblolly pine: Effects of nutrient and water availability and root size class on mass loss and nutrient dynamics. Plant and Soil 195:171-184.
  245. King, J. S., K. S. Pregitzer, D. R. Zak, M. E. Kubiske, and W. E. Holmes. 2001. Correlation of foliage and litter chemistry of sugar maple, Acer saccharum, as affected by elevated CO2 and varying N availability, and effects on decomposition. Oikos 94:403-416.
  246. Kinney, K. K., R. L. Lindroth, S. M. Jung, and E. V. Nordheim. 1997. Effects of CO2 and NO3- availability on deciduous trees: Phytochemistry and insect performance. Ecology 78:215-230.
  247. Kishchuk, B. E., F. WeetmAng, R. P. Brockley, and C. E. Prescott. 2002. Fourteen-year growth response of young lodgepole pine to repeated fertilization. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32:153-160.
  248. Kitajima, K., and K. P. Hogan. 2003. Increases of chlorophyll a/b ratios during acclimation of tropical woody seedlings to nitrogen limitation and high light. Plant Cell and Environment 26:857-865.
  249. Kitao, M., T. Koike, H. Tobita, and Y. Maruyama. 2005. Elevated CO2 and limited nitrogen nutrition can restrict excitation energy dissipation in photosystem ii of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. Japonica) leaves. Physiologia Plantarum 125:64-73.
  250. Klaudisova, M., M. Hejcman, and V. Pavlu. 2009. Long-term residual effect of short-term fertilizer application on Ca, N and P concentrations in grasses Nardus stricta L. and Avenella flexuosa L. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 85:187-193.
  251. Kloeppel, B. D., S. T. Gower, J. G. Vogel, and P. B. Reich. 2000. Leaf-level resource use for evergreen and deciduous conifers along a resource availability gradient. Functional Ecology 14:281-292.
  252. Knops, J. M. H., S. Naeemw, and P. B. Reich. 2007. The impact of elevated CO2, increased nitrogen availability and biodiversity on plant tissue quality and decomposition. Global Change Biology 13:1960-1971.
  253. Koopmans, C. J., A. Tietema, and A. W. Boxman. 1996. The fate of 15N enriched throughfall in two coniferous forest stands at different nitrogen deposition levels. Biogeochemistry 34:19-44.
  254. Kozovits, A. R., M. M. C. Bustamante, C. R. Garofalo, S. Bucci, A. C. Franco, G. Goldstein, and F. C. Meinzer. 2007. Nutrient resorption and patterns of litter production and decomposition in a Neotropical Savanna. Functional Ecology 21:1034-1043.
  255. Krause, K., P. Cherubini, H. Bugmann, and P. Schleppi. 2012. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes. Tree Physiology 32:1471-1481.
  256. Kunkle, J. M., M. B. Walters, and R. K. Kobe. 2009. Senescence-related changes in nitrogen in fine roots: Mass loss affects estimation. Tree Physiology 29:715-723.
  257. Kurina, L. M., and P. M. Vitousek. 1999. Controls over the accumulation and decline of a nitrogen-fixing lichen, Stereocaulon vulcani, on young Hawaiian lava flows. Journal of Ecology 87:784-799.
  258. L'Hirondelle, S. J., J. S. Jacobson, and J. P. Lassoie. 1992. Acidic mist and nitrogen fertilization effects on growth, nitrate reductase activity, gas exchange, and frost hardiness of red spruce seedlings. New Phytologist 121:611-622.
  259. Laitinen, K., E. M. Luomala, S. Kellomaki, and E. Vapaavuori. 2000. Carbon assimilation and nitrogen in needles of fertilized and unfertilized field-grown Scots pine at natural and elevated concentrations of CO2. Tree Physiology 20:881-892.
  260. Lajtha, K. 1987. Nutrient reabsorption efficiency and the response to phosphorus fertilization in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. Biogeochemistry 4:265-276.
  261. Lasso, E., and J. D. Ackerman. 2013. Nutrient limitation restricts growth and reproductive output in a tropical montane cloud forest bromeliad: Findings from a long-term forest fertilization experiment. Oecologia 171:165-174.
  262. Launonen, T. M., D. H. Ashton, and P. J. Keane. 2005. Growth, nutrient acquisition and ectomycorrhizae of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings in fertilized or diluted air-dried and undried forest soil. Plant and Soil 268:221-231.
  263. Lawrence, D. 2001. Nitrogen and phosphorus enhance growth and luxury consumption of four secondary forest tree species in Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17:859-869.
  264. Lee, K. S., and K. H. Dunton. 1999. Influence of sediment nitrogen-availability on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Marine Biology 134:217-226.
  265. Lee, T. D., M. G. Tjoelker, D. S. Ellsworth, and P. B. Reich. 2001. Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply. New Phytologist 150:405-418.
  266. Lei, M., S. Y. Li, S. B. Zhang, and H. Hu. 2009. Effects of nitrogen on photosynthesis and growth in Incarvillea delavayi (Bignoniaceae). Acta Botanica Yunnanica 31:82-88.
  267. Leith, I. D., W. K. Hicks, D. Fowler, and S. J. Woodin. 1999. Differential responses of UK upland plants to nitrogen deposition. New Phytologist 141:277-289.
  268. Li, D., J. Mo, S. Peng, and Y. Fang. 2005. Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on elemental concentrations of Schima superba and Cryptocarya concinna seedlings in subtropical China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 25:2165-2172.
  269. Li, F., and S. Kang. 2002. Effects of CO2 enrichment, nitrogen and soil moisture on plant C/N and C/P in spring wheat. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 26:295-302.
  270. Li, F., and S. Kang. 2003. Effect of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on the growth and grain yield of winter wheat. Acta Pedologica Sinica 40:599-605.
  271. Li, F., S. Kang, and F. Zhang. 2002. Effect of atmospheric CO2 and temperature increment on crop physiology and ecology. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 13:1169-1173.
  272. Li, F. S., S. Z. Kang, and J. H. Zhang. 2003. CO2 enrichment on biomass accumulation and nitrogen nutrition of spring wheat under different soil nitrogen and water status. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26:769-788.
  273. Li, L. J., D. H. Zeng, R. Mao, and Z. Y. Yu. 2012. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption of Artemisia scoparia, Chenopodium acuminatum, Cannabis sativa, and Phragmites communis under nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a semiarid grassland, China. Plant Soil and Environment 58:446-451.
  274. Li, X. F., X. B. Zheng, S. J. Han, J. Q. Zheng, and T. H. Li. 2010. Effects of nitrogen additions on nitrogen resorption and use efficiencies and foliar litterfall of six tree species in a mixed birch and poplar forest, northeastern China. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:2256-2261.
  275. Liang, H., and S. X. Chang. 2004. Response of trembling and hybrid aspens to phosphorus and sulfur fertilization in a Gray Luvisol: Growth and nutrient uptake. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34:1391-1399.
  276. Lima, A. L. S., F. Zanella, M. A. Schiavianto, and C. R. B. Haddad. 2006. N availability and mechanisms of N conservation in deciduous and semideciduous tropical forest legume trees. Acta Botanica Brasilica 20:625-632.
  277. Limpens, J., F. Berendse, and H. Klees. 2003a. N deposition affects N availability in interstitial water, growth of Sphagnum and invasion of vascular plants in bog vegetation. New Phytologist 157:339-347.
  278. Limpens, J., F. Berendse, and H. Klees. 2004. How phosphorus availability affects the impact of nitrogen deposition on Sphagnum and vascular plants in bogs. Ecosystems 7:793-804.
  279. Limpens, J., H. B. M. Tomassen, and F. Berendse. 2003b. Expansion of Sphagnum fallax in bogs: striking the balance between N and P availability. Journal of Bryology 25:83-90.
  280. Litaor, M. I., T. R. Seastedt, and L. C. Sackett. 2008. Nutrient status in alpine soils of the colorado front range using the nitrogen/phosphorus ratio index. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72:1628-1636.
  281. Liu, B. Y., W. Q. Liu, Y. S. Zhang, and C. Y. Lei. 2011a. Physiological responses of bryophytes experienced low temperature stress to simulated nitrogen deposition. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 35:268-274.
  282. Liu, D., and S. Changchun. 2008a. Effects of elevated nitrogen supply on soil organic carbon mineralization and litter decomposition. Journal of Soil Science 39:675-680.
  283. Liu, D., and S. ChangChun. 2008b. The litter characteristics of Calamagrostis angustifolia and its early-stage decomposition affected by exogenous nitrogen input in freshwater marsh. Wetland Science 6:235-241.
  284. Liu, J., D. Zhang, G. Zhou, and H. Duan. 2012. Changes in leaf nutrient traits and photosynthesis of four tree species: effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization and canopy positions. Journal of Plant Ecology 5:376-390.
  285. Liu, J. X., W. J. Huang, G. Y. Zhou, D. Q. Zhang, S. Z. Liu, and Y. Y. Li. 2013. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tree species in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition in subtropical forests. Global Change Biology 19:208-216.
  286. Liu, J. X., G. Y. Zhou, Z. H. Xu, H. L. Duan, Y. L. Li, and D. Q. Zhang. 2011b. Photosynthesis acclimation, leaf nitrogen concentration, and growth of four tree species over 3 years in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen treatment in subtropical China. Journal of Soils and Sediments 11:1155-1164.
  287. Liu, P., J. H. Huang, X. G. Han, O. J. Sun, and Z. Zhou. 2006. Differential responses of litter decomposition to increased soil nutrients and water between two contrasting grassland plant species of Inner Mongolia, China. Applied Soil Ecology 34:266-275.
  288. Liu, P., J. H. Huang, O. J. Sun, and X. G. Han. 2010. Litter decomposition and nutrient release as affected by soil nitrogen availability and litter quality in a semiarid grassland ecosystem. Oecologia 162:771-780.
  289. Liu, S. R., C. Barton, H. Lee, P. G. Jarvis, and D. Durrant. 2002. Long-term response of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) to CO2 enrichment and nitrogen supply. I. Growth, biomass allocation and physiology. Plant Biosystems 136:189-198.
  290. Liu, Y. J., G. X. Shi, L. Mao, G. Cheng, S. J. Jiang, and H. Y. Feng. 2011c. Effects of fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Elymus nutans roots. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 22:3131-3137.
  291. Loaiza, V., J. L. Jonas, and A. Joern. 2011. Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) select vegetation patches in local-scale responses to foliar nitrogen but not phosphorus in native grassland. Insect Science 18:533-540.
  292. Loveland, D. G., and I. A. Ungar. 1983. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the production of Halophytes in an inland salt marsh. American Midland Naturalist 109:346-354.
  293. Lovelock, C. E., and I. C. Feller. 2003. Photosynthetic performance and resource utilization of two mangrove species coexisting in a hypersaline scrub forest. Oecologia 134:455-462.
  294. Lovelock, C. E., I. C. Feller, J. Ellis, A. M. Schwarz, N. Hancock, P. Nichols, and B. Sorrell. 2007. Mangrove growth in new zealand estuaries: The role of nutrient enrichment at sites with contrasting rates of sedimentation. Oecologia 153:633-641.
  295. Lovelock, C. E., I. C. Feller, K. L. McKee, B. M. J. Engelbrecht, and M. C. Ball. 2004. The effect of nutrient enrichment on growth, photosynthesis and hydraulic conductance of dwarf mangroves in Panama. Functional Ecology 18:25-33.
  296. Lovelock, C. E., R. W. Ruess, and I. C. Feller. 2006. Fine root respiration in the mangrove rhizophora mangle over variation in forest stature and nutrient availability. Tree Physiology 26:1601-1606.
  297. Lovett, G. M., and C. L. Goodale. 2011. A new conceptual model of nitrogen saturation based on experimental nitrogen addition to an oak forest. Ecosystems 14:615-631.
  298. Lowe, P. N., W. K. Lauenroth, and I. C. Burke. 2003. Effects of nitrogen availability on competition between Bromus tectorum and Bouteloua gracilis. Plant Ecology 167:247-254.
  299. Lu, X. K., J. M. Mo, D. J. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. T. Fang. 2007. Effects of simulated N deposition on the photosynthetic and physiologic characteristics of dominant understorey plants in Dinghushan Mountain of subtropical China. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 29:1-9.
  300. Lu, X. T., Q. A. Cui, Q. B. Wang, and X. G. Han. 2011. Nutrient resorption response to fire and nitrogen addition in a semi-arid grassland. Ecological Engineering 37:534-538.
  301. Ludwig, F., H. de Kroon, H. H. T. Prins, and F. Berendse. 2001. Effects of nutrients and shade on tree-grass interactions in an East African savanna. Journal of Vegetation Science 12:579-588.
  302. Luo, Z. B., C. Calfapietra, G. Scarascia-Mugnozza, M. Liberloo, and A. Polle. 2008. Carbon-based secondary metabolites and internal nitrogen pools in Populus nigra under free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and nitrogen fertilisation. Plant and Soil 304:45-57.
  303. Luo, Z. B., and A. Polle. 2009. Wood composition and energy content in a poplar short rotation plantation on fertilized agricultural land in a future CO2 atmosphere. Global Change Biology 15:38-47.
  304. Lutze, J. L., R. M. Gifford, and H. N. Adams. 2000. Litter quality and decomposition in Danthonia richardsonii swards in response to CO2 and nitrogen supply over four years of growth. Global Change Biology 6:13-24.
  305. Lv, X. T., D. L. Kong, Q. M. Pan, M. E. Simmons, and X. G. Han. 2012. Nitrogen and water availability interact to affect leaf stoichiometry in a semi-arid grassland. Oecologia 168:301-310.
  306. Lv, X. T., C. Z. Wei, Q. Cui, Y. H. Zhang, and X. G. Han. 2010. Interactive effects of soil nitrogen and water availability on leaf mass loss in a temperate steppe. Plant and Soil 331:497-504.
  307. Ma, H. L., J. G. Zhu, Z. B. Xie, G. Liu, Q. Zeng, and Y. Han. 2007. Responses of rice and winter wheat to free-air CO2 enrichment (China FACE) at rice/wheat rotation system. Plant and Soil 294:137-146.
  308. Mack, M. C., E. A. G. Schuur, M. S. Bret-Harte, G. R. Shaver, and F. S. Chapin. 2004. Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long-term nutrient fertilization. Nature 431:440-443.
  309. Maestre, F. T., and J. F. Reynolds. 2006. Spatial heterogeneity in soil nutrient supply modulates nutrient and biomass responses to multiple global change drivers in model grassland communities. Global Change Biology 12:2431-2441.
  310. Maier, C. A., K. H. Johnsen, J. Butnor, L. W. Kress, and P. H. Anderson. 2002. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization. Tree Physiology 22:1093-1106.
  311. Makipaa, R. 1995. Sensitivity of forest-floor mosses boreal forests to nitrogen and sulphur deposition. Water Air and Soil Pollution 85:1239-1244.
  312. Malkonen, E., and M. Kukkola. 1991. Effect of long-term fertilization on the biomass production and nutrient status of Scots pine stands. Fertilizer Research 27:113-127.
  313. Malmer, N., C. Albinsson, B. M. Svensson, and B. Wallen. 2003. Interferences between Sphagnum and vascular plants: effects on plant community structure and peat formation. Oikos 100:469-482.
  314. Manninen, O. H., S. Stark, M. M. Kytoviita, and A. Tolvanen. 2011. Individual and combined effects of disturbance and N addition on understorey vegetation in a subarctic mountain birch forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 22:262-272.
  315. Mansfield, J. L., P. S. Curtis, D. R. Zak, and K. S. Pregitzer. 1999. Genotypic variation for condensed tannin production in trembling aspen (Populs tremuloides, Salicaceae) under elevated CO2 and in high- and low-fertility soil. American Journal of Botany 86:1154-1159.
  316. Mao, R., C. C. Song, X. H. Zhang, X. W. Wang, and Z. H. Zhang. 2013. Response of leaf, sheath and stem nutrient resorption to 7 years of N addition in freshwater wetland of Northeast China. Plant and Soil 364:385-394.
  317. Maroco, J. P., E. Breia, T. Faria, J. S. Pereira, and M. M. Chaves. 2002. Effects of long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and N fertilization on the development of photosynthetic capacity and biomass accumulation in Quercus suber L. Plant Cell and Environment 25:105-113.
  318. Masarovicova, E., R. Welschen, A. Lux, H. Lambers, K. Argalasova, E. Brandsteterova, and A. Caniova. 2000. Photosynthesis, biomass partitioning and peroxisomicine A1 production of karwinskia species in response to nitrogen supply. Physiologia Plantarum 108:300-306.
  319. Matsushima, M., and S. X. Chang. 2006. Vector analysis of understory competition, N fertilization, and litter layer removal effects on white spruce growth and nutrition in a 13-year-old plantation. Forest Ecology and Management 236:332-341.
  320. Mattson, W. J., R. Julkunen-Tiitto, and D. A. Herms. 2005. CO2 enrichment and carbon partitioning to phenolics: Do plant responses accord better with the protein competition or the growth differentiation balance models? Oikos 111:337-347.
  321. McKinnon, L. M., and A. K. Mitchell. 2003. Photoprotection, not increased growth, characterizes the response of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) seedlings to high light, even when resources are plentiful. New Phytologist 160:69-79.
  322. McNulty, S. G., and J. D. Aber. 1993. Effects of chronic nitrogen additions on nitrogen cycling in a high-elevation spruce-fir stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1252-1263.
  323. McNulty, S. G., J. D. Aber, and S. D. Newman. 1996. Nitrogen saturation in a high elevation New England spruce-fir stand. Forest Ecology and Management 84:109-121.
  324. McNulty, S. G., J. Boggs, J. D. Aber, L. Rustad, and A. Magill. 2005. Red spruce ecosystem level changes following 14 years of chronic N fertilization. Forest Ecology and Management 219:279-291.
  325. Melnychuk, M. C., and C. J. Krebs. 2005. Residual effects of NPK fertilization on shrub growth in a Yukon boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Botany 83:399-404.
  326. Menge, D. N. L. 2003. Anthropogenic global environmental changes and phosphorus limitation: Interactions and implications. file:\e:\rfENpdf\UMI\000440.pdf.
  327. Menge, D. N. L., and C. B. Field. 2007. Simulated global changes alter phosphorus demand in annual grassland. Global Change Biology 13:2582-2591.
  328. Miao, S. L. 2004. Rhizome growth and nutrient resorption: mechanisms underlying the replacement of two clonal species in Florida Everglades. Aquatic Botany 78:55-66.
  329. Michelsen, A., I. K. Schmidt, S. Jonasson, C. Quarmby, and D. Sleep. 1996. Leaf 15N abundance of subarctic plants provides field evidence that ericoid, ectomycorrhizal and non- and arbuscular mycorrhizal species access different sources of soil nitrogen. Oecologia 105:53-63.
  330. Miller, B. D. 2003. Nitrogen uptake and utilization by slowand fast-growing families of interior spruce under contrasting fertility regimes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research:959 -966.
  331. Miller, P. M., L. E. Eddleman, and J. M. Miller. 1991. The response of juvenile and small adult western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) to nitrate and ammonium fertilization. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:2344-2352.
  332. Mo, J. M., D. J. Li, and P. Gundersen. 2008. Seedling growth response of two tropical tree species to nitrogen deposition in southern China. European Journal of Forest Research 127:275-283.
  333. Moon, D. C., and P. Stiling. 2003. The influence of legacy effects and recovery from perturbations in a tritrophic salt marsh complex. Ecological Entomology 28:457-466.
  334. Mugasha, A. G., S. E. Macdonald, and D. J. Pluth. 1996. Needle litter responses of peatland tamarack and black spruce to fertilization of minerotrophic peatland sites. Forest Ecology and Management 87:257-264.
  335. Murray, M. B., R. I. Smith, A. Friend, and P. G. Jarvis. 2000. Effect of elevated [CO2] and varying nutrient application rates on physiology and biomass accumulation of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Tree Physiology 20:421-434.
  336. Nadelhoffer, K. J., L. Johnson, J. Laundre, A. E. Giblin, and G. R. Shaver. 2002. Fine root production and nutrient content in wet and moist arctic tundras as influenced by chronic fertilization. Plant and Soil 242:107-113.
  337. Nagakura, J., S. Kaneko, M. Takahashi, and T. Tange. 2008. Nitrogen promotes water consumption in seedlings of Cryptomeria japonica but not in Chamaecyparis obtusa. Forest Ecology and Management 255:2533-2541.
  338. Nasholm. 1994. Removal of nitrogen during needle senescence in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Oecologia 99:290-296.
  339. Nasir, S., and M. M. A. Khan. 2012. Critical dose of nitrogen and phosphorus enhanced growth, yield and alkaloid content in Withania somnifera L. Journal of Plant Nutrition 35:1705-1724.
  340. Natali, S., S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy, and M. Lerdau. 2009. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on nitrate reductase activity in sweetgum and loblolly pine trees in two temperate forests. Plant and Soil 314:197-210.
  341. Nelson, L. E., M. G. Shelton, and G. L. Switzer. 1995. The influence of nitrogen applications on the resorption of foliar nutrients in sweetgum. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25:298-306.
  342. Ni, K., W. X. Ding, Z. C. Cai, Y. F. Wang, X. L. Zhang, and B. K. Zhou. 2012. Soil carbon dioxide emission from intensively cultivated black soil in northeast China: Nitrogen fertilization effect. Journal of Soils and Sediments 12:1007-1018.
  343. Niinemets, U., and K. Kull. 2005. Co-limitation of plant primary productivity by nitrogen and phosphorus in a species-rich wooded meadow on calcareous soils. Acta Oecologica 28:345-356.
  344. Niinemets, U., J. D. Tenhunen, N. R. Canta, M. M. Chaves, T. Faria, J. S. Pereira, and J. F. Reynolds. 1999. Interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the acclimation potential of foliage photosynthetic properties of cork oak, Quercus suber, to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global Change Biology 5:455-470.
  345. Norby, R. J., and E. G. Oneill. 1991. Leaf-area compensation and nutrient interactions in CO2-enriched seedlings of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). New Phytologist 117:515-528.
  346. Nordin, A., T. Nasholm, and L. Ericson. 1998. Effects of simulated N deposition on understorey vegetation of a boreal coniferous forest. Functional Ecology 12:691-699.
  347. Nordin, A., J. Strengbom, and L. Ericson. 2006. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies. Environmental Pollution 141:167-174.
  348. Norris, C. E., S. A. Quideau, J. S. Bhatti, R. E. Wasylishen, and M. D. MacKenzie. 2009. Influence of fire and harvest on soil organic carbon in jack pine sites. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39:642-654.
  349. O'Dell, R. E., and V. P. Claassen. 2006. Serpentine and nonserpentine Achillea millefolium accessions differ in serpentine substrate tolerance and response to organic and inorganic amendments. Plant and Soil 279:253-269.
  350. O'Halloran, L. R., H. H. Shugart, L. X. Wang, K. K. Caylor, S. Ringrose, and B. Kgope. 2010. Nutrient limitations on aboveground grass production in four savanna types along the Kalahari transect. Journal of Arid Environments 74:284-290.
  351. Oien, D. I. 2004. Nutrient limitation in boreal rich-fen vegetation: A fertilization experiment. Applied Vegetation Science 7:119-132.
  352. Oliet, J. A., J. M. Salazar, R. Villar, E. Robredo, and F. Valladares. 2011. Fall fertilization of holm oak affects N and P dynamics, root growth potential, and post-planting phenology and growth. Annals of Forest Science 68:647-656.
  353. Ostertag, R. 2010. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation responses after fertilization: An example from nutrient-limited Hawaiian forests. Plant and Soil 334:85-98.
  354. Pakeman, R. J., and J. A. Lee. 1991. The ecology of the strandline annuals Cakile maritime and Salsola kali. II. The role of nitrogen in controlling plant performance. Journal of Ecology 79:155-165.
  355. Pal, M., L. S. Rao, A. C. Srivastava, V. Jain, and U. K. Sengupta. 2003. Impact of CO2 enrichment and variable nitrogen supplies on composition and partitioning of essential nutrients of wheat. Biologia Plantarum 47:227-231.
  356. Palmqvist, K., and L. Dahlman. 2006. Responses of the green algal foliose lichen Platismatia glauca to increased nitrogen supply. New Phytologist 171:343-356.
  357. Pasquini, S. C., and L. S. Santiago. 2012. Nutrients limit photosynthesis in seedlings of a lowland tropical forest tree species. Oecologia 168:311-319.
  358. Paulissen, M., L. E. Besalu, H. De Bruijn, P. J. M. Van der Ven, and R. Bobbink. 2005. Contrasting effects of ammonium enrichment on fen bryophytes. Journal of Bryology 27:109-117.
  359. Pearce, I. S. K., and R. van der Wal. 2002. Effects of nitrogen deposition on growth and survival of montane Racomitrium lanuginosum heath. Biological Conservation 104:83-89.
  360. Pearce, I. S. K., S. J. Woodin, and R. van der Wal. 2003. Physiological and growth responses of the montane bryophyte Racomitrium lanuginosum to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. New Phytologist 160:145-155.
  361. Peek, M. S., and I. N. Forseth. 2003. Enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of an aridland perennial in response to soil nitrogen pulses generated by mule deer. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49:169-180.
  362. Pennings, S. C., and J. C. Simpson. 2008. Like herbivores, parasitic plants are limited by host nitrogen content. Plant Ecology 196:245-250.
  363. Persson, H., and K. Ahlstrom. 1994. The effects of alkalizing compounds on fine-root growth in a Norway spruce stand in southwest Sweden. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part a-Environmental Science and Engineering & Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control 29:803-820.
  364. Peters, H. A., G. Hsu, E. E. Cleland, N. R. Chiariello, H. A. Mooney, and C. B. Field. 2007. Responses of temporal distribution of gastropods to individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition in annual grassland. Acta Oecologica 31:343-352.
  365. Phoenix, G. K., R. E. Booth, J. R. Leake, D. J. Read, J. P. Grime, and J. A. Lee. 2003. Effects of enhanced nitrogen deposition and phosphorus limitation on nitrogen budgets of semi-natural grasslands. Global Change Biology 9:1309-1321.
  366. Phoenix, G. K., R. E. Booth, J. R. Leake, D. J. Read, J. P. Grime, and J. A. Lee. 2004. Simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition increases P demand and enhances root-surface phosphatase activities of three plant functional types in a calcareous grassland. New Phytologist 161:279-289.
  367. Pietikainen, A., M. M. Kytoviita, and U. Vuoti. 2005. Mycorrhiza and seedling establishment in a subarctic meadow: Effects of fertilization and defoliation. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:175-182.
  368. Pompelli, M. F., S. C. V. Martins, W. C. Antunes, A. R. M. Chaves, and F. M. DaMatta. 2010. Photosynthesis and photoprotection in coffee leaves is affected by nitrogen and light availabilities in winter conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 167:1052-1060.
  369. Portsmuth, A., and U. Niinemets. 2006. Interacting controls by light availability and nutrient supply on biomass allocation and growth of Betula pendula and B. pubescens seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 227:122-134.
  370. Possell, M., J. Heath, C. Nicholas Hewitt, E. Ayres, and G. Kerstiens. 2004. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and soil fertility on isoprene emissions from Quercus robur. Global Change Biology 10:1835-1843.
  371. Pregitzer, K. S. 2003. Woody plants, carbon allocation and fine roots. New Phytologist 158:421-424.
  372. Pregitzer, K. S., A. J. Burton, D. R. Zak, and A. F. Talhelm. 2008. Simulated chronic nitrogen deposition increases carbon storage in Northern Temperate forests. Global Change Biology 14:142-153.
  373. Pregitzer, K. S., D. R. Zak, P. S. Curtis, M. E. Kubiske, J. A. Teeri, and C. S. Vogel. 1995. Atmospheric CO2, soil nitrogen and turnover of fine roots. New Phytologist 129:579-585.
  374. Prietzel, J., K. E. Rehfuess, U. Stetter, and H. Pretzsch. 2008. Changes of soil chemistry, stand nutrition, and stand growth at two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sites in central Europe during 40 years after fertilization, liming, and lupine introduction. European Journal of Forest Research 127:43-61.
  375. Prsa, I., F. Stampar, D. Vodnik, and R. Veberic. 2007. Influence of nitrogen on leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthesis of 'Golden Delicious' apple. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science 57:283-289.
  376. Qiao, J., L. Z. Yang, T. M. Yan, F. Xue, and D. Zhao. 2012. Nitrogen fertilizer reduction in rice production for two consecutive years in the Taihu Lake area. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 146:103-112.
  377. Raich, J. W., A. E. Russell, T. E. Crews, H. Farrington, and P. M. Vitousek. 1996. Both nitrogen and phosphorus limit plant production on young Hawaiian lava flows. Biogeochemistry 32:1-14.
  378. Rainey, S. M., K. J. Nadelhoffer, W. L. Silver, and M. R. Downs. 1999. Effects of chronic nitrogen additions on understory species in a red pine plantation. Ecological Applications 9:949-957.
  379. Reich, P. B., C. Buschena, M. G. Tjoelker, K. Wrage, J. Knops, D. Tilman, and J. L. Machado. 2003. Variation in growth rate and ecophysiology among 34 grassland and savanna species under contrasting N supply: A test of functional group differences. New Phytologist 157:617-631.
  380. Reich, P. B., D. Tilman, J. Craine, D. Ellsworth, M. G. Tjoelker, J. Knops, D. Wedin, S. Naeem, D. Bahauddin, J. Goth, W. Bengtson, and T. D. Lee. 2001. Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO2 and N availability regimes? A field test with 16 grassland species. New Phytologist 150:435-448.
  381. Rejmankova, E. 2001. Effect of experimental phosphorus enrichment on oligotrophic tropical marshes in Belize, Central America. Plant and Soil 236:33-53.
  382. Rejmankova, E., and J. M. Snyder. 2008. Emergent macrophytes in phosphorus limited marshes: Do phosphorus usage strategies change after nutrient addition? Plant and Soil 313:141-153.
  383. Ren, H. Y., Z. W. Xu, J. H. Huang, C. Clark, S. P. Chen, and X. G. Han. 2011. Nitrogen and water addition reduce leaf longevity of steppe species. Annals of Botany 107:145-155.
  384. Richards, J. H., and C. T. Ivey. 2004. Morphological plasticity of Sagittaria lancifolia in response to phosphorus. Aquatic Botany 80:53-67.
  385. Richardson, S. J., M. C. Press, A. N. Parsons, and S. E. Hartley. 2002. How do nutrients and warming impact on plant communities and their insect herbivores? A 9-year study from a sub-arctic heath. Journal of Ecology 90:544-556.
  386. Ries, L. P., and H. H. Shugart. 2008. Nutrient limitations on understory grass productivity and carbon assimilation in an African woodland savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 72:1423-1430.
  387. Rinnan, R., A. Rinnan, P. Faubert, P. Tiiva, J. K. Holopainen, and A. Michelsen. 2011. Few long-term effects of simulated climate change on volatile organic compound emissions and leaf chemistry of three subarctic dwarf shrubs. Environmental and Experimental Botany 72:377-386.
  388. Roberntz, P. 2001. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, nitrogen availability, temperature and the photosynthetic capacity of current-year Norway spruce shoots. Tree Physiology 21:931-940.
  389. Roberntz, P., and S. Linder. 1999. Effects of long-term CO2 enrichment and nutrient availability in Norway spruce. II. Foliar chemistry. Trees-Structure and Function 14:17-27.
  390. Roberntz, P., and J. Stockfors. 1998. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nutrition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and needle respiration of field-grown Norway spruce trees. Tree Physiology 18:233-241.
  391. Robinson, D. E., R. G. Wagner, and C. J. Swanton. 2002. Effects of nitrogen on the growth of jack pine competing with Canada blue-joint grass and large-leaved aster. Forest Ecology and Management 160:233-242.
  392. Robroek, B. J. M., E. B. Adema, H. O. Venterink, L. Leonardson, and M. J. Wassen. 2009. How nitrogen and sulphur addition, and a single drought event affect root phosphatase activity in Phalaris arundinacea. Science of the Total Environment 407:2342-2348.
  393. Ronnenberg, K., and K. Wesche. 2011. Effects of fertilization and irrigation on productivity, plant nutrient contents and soil nutrients in southern Mongolia. Plant and Soil 340:239-251.
  394. Rothstein, D. E., and B. M. Cregg. 2005. Effects of nitrogen form on nutrient uptake and physiology of fraser fir (Abies fraseri). Forest Ecology and Management 219:69-80.
  395. Rothstein, D. E., D. R. Zak, K. S. Pregitzer, and P. S. Curtis. 2000. Kinetics of nitrogen uptake by Populus tremuloides in relation to atmospheric CO2 and soil nitrogen availability. Tree Physiology 20:265-270.
  396. Rueth, H. M., J. S. Baron, and E. J. Allstott. 2003. Responses of Engelmann spruce forests to nitrogen fertilization in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Ecological Applications 13:664-673.
  397. Ruohomaki, K., F. S. Chapin, E. Haukioja, S. Neuvonen, and J. Suomela. 1996. Delayed inducible resistance in mountain birch in response to fertilization and shade. Ecology 77:2302-2311.
  398. Ryan, M. G., D. Binkley, J. H. Fownes, C. P. Giardina, and R. S. Senock. 2004. An experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand age. Ecological Monographs 74:393-414.
  399. Saarinen, T. 1998. Internal C:N balance and biomass partitioning of Carex rostrata grown at three levels of nitrogen supply. Canadian Journal of Botany 76:762-768.
  400. Sager, E. P. S., and T. C. Hutchinson. 2005. The effects of UV-B, nitrogen fertilization, and springtime warming on sugar maple seedlings and the soil chemistry of two central Ontario forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:2432-2446.
  401. Samuelson, L. J., J. Butnor, C. Maier, T. A. Stokes, K. Johnsen, and M. Kane. 2008. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: Defining growth potential in the southern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:721-732.
  402. Saneoka, H., R. E. A. Moghaieb, G. S. Premachandra, and K. Fujita. 2004. Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on cell membrane stability and leaf water relations in Agrostis palustris Huds. Environmental and Experimental Botany 52:131-138.
  403. Sardans, J., J. Penuelas, and F. Roda. 2006a. The effects of nutrient availability and removal of competing vegetation on resprouter capacity and nutrient accumulation in the shrub Erica multiflora. Acta Oecologica 29:221-232.
  404. Sardans, J., J. Penuelas, and F. Roda. 2006b. Plasticity of leaf morphological traits, leaf nutrient content, and water capture in the Mediterranean evergreen oak Quercus ilex subsp ballota in response to fertilization and changes in competitive conditions. Ecoscience 13:258-270.
  405. Sardans, J., F. Roda, and J. Penuelas. 2005. Effects of water and a nutrient pulse supply on rosmarinus officinalis growth, nutrient content and flowering in the field. Environmental and Experimental Botany 53:1-11.
  406. Sariyildiz, T., and J. M. Anderson. 2005. Variation in the chemical composition of green leaves and leaf litters from three deciduous tree species growing on different soil types. Forest Ecology and Management 210:303-319.
  407. Schaberg, P. G., T. D. Perkins, and S. G. McNulty. 1997. Effects of chronic low-level N additions on foliar elemental concentrations, morphology, and gas exchange of mature montane red spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1622-1629.
  408. Schappi, B., and C. Korner. 1997. In situ effects of elevated CO2 on the carbon and nitrogen status of alpine plants. Functional Ecology 11:290-299.
  409. Schmidt, I. K., A. Michelsen, and S. Jonasson. 1997. Effects of labile soil carbon on nutrient partitioning between an arctic graminoid and microbes. Oecologia 112:557-565.
  410. Scott, D. A. 2004. Sweetgum response to nitrogen fertilization on sites of different quality and land use history. Pages 227-232 in Proceedings of the eleventh biennial southern silviculture research conference. General Technical Report SRS-48.
  411. Semelova, V., M. Hejcman, V. Pavlu, S. Vacek, and V. Podrazsky. 2008. The grass garden in the Giant Mts. (Czech Republic): Residual effect of long-term fertilization after 62 years. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 123:337-342.
  412. Seneweera, S., A. Blakeney, P. Milham, A. S. Basra, E. W. R. Barlow, and J. Conroy. 1996. Influence of rising atmospheric CO2 and phosphorus nutrition on the grain yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Jarrah). Cereal Chemistry 73:239-243.
  413. Shaw, M. R., and J. Harte. 2001. Control of litter decomposition in a subalpine meadow-sagebrush steppe ecotone under climate change. Ecological Applications 11:1206-1223.
  414. Shinano, T., T. Yamamoto, K. Tawaraya, M. Tadokoro, T. Koike, and M. Osaki. 2007. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the nutrient uptake characteristics of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). Tree Physiology 27:97-104.
  415. Siemann, E., W. E. Rogers, and J. B. Grace. 2007. Effects of nutrient loading and extreme rainfall events on coastal tallgrass prairies: Invasion intensity, vegetation responses, and carbon and nitrogen distribution. Global Change Biology 13:2184-2192.
  416. Singh, P., S. Singh, S. B. Agrawal, and M. Agrawal. 2012. Assessment of the interactive effects of ambient O3 and NPK levels on two tropical mustard varieties (Brassica campestris L.) using open-top chambers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184:5863-5874.
  417. Singh, S., R. Kumari, M. Agrawal, and S. B. Agrawal. 2011. Growth, yield and tuber quality of Solanum tuberosum L. Under supplemental ultraviolet-b radiation at different npk levels. Plant Biology 13:508-516.
  418. Smaill, S. J., P. W. Clinton, and L. G. Greenfield. 2008. Nitrogen fertiliser effects on litter fall, FH layer and mineral soil characteristics in New Zealand Pinus radiata plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 256:564-569.
  419. Son, Y. 2002. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics in ginkgo seedlings. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25:93-102.
  420. Son, Y., and J. H. Hwang. 2003. Fine root biomass, production and turnover in a fertilized Larix leptolepis plantation in central korea. Ecological Research 18:339-346.
  421. Song, C. C., D. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Song, G. S. Yang, Z. M. Wan, Y. C. Li, and X. F. Xu. 2011a. Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of northeast China. Atmospheric Environment 45:1402-1406.
  422. Song, L., X. Bao, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, P. Christie, A. Fangmeier, and F. Zhang. 2011b. Nitrogen enrichment enhances the dominance of grasses over forbs in a temperate steppe ecosystem. Biogeosciences 8:2341-2350.
  423. Soudzilovskaia, N. A., V. G. Onipchenko, J. H. C. Cornelissen, and R. Aerts. 2005. Biomass production, N : P ratio and nutrient limitation in a Caucasian alpine tundra plant community. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:399-406.
  424. Soussana, J. F., and U. A. Hartwig. 1996. The effects of elevated CO2 on symbiotic N-2 fixation: A link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles in grassland ecosystems. Plant and Soil 187:321-332.
  425. Sparrius, L. B., A. M. Kooijman, and J. Sevink. 2013. Response of inland dune vegetation to increased nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Applied Vegetation Science 16:40-50.
  426. Spencer, D., and G. Ksander. 2003. Nutrient limitation of Zannichellia palustris and Elodea canadensis growing in sediments from Fall River, California. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 18:207-213.
  427. Srinivasan, M. P., S. K. Gleeson, and M. A. Arthur. 2012. Short-term impacts of nitrogen fertilization on a montane grassland ecosystem in a South Asian biodiversity hotspot. Plant Ecology & Diversity 5:289-299.
  428. Stark, S., and D. Grellmann. 2002. Soil microbial responses to herbivory in an arctic tundra heath at two levels of nutrient availability. Ecology 83:2736-2744.
  429. Steinbachova-Vojtiskova, L., E. Tylova, A. Soukup, H. Novicka, O. Votrubova, H. Lipavska, and H. Cizkova. 2006. Influence of nutrient supply on growth, carbohydrate, and nitrogen metabolic relations in Typha angustifolia. Environmental and Experimental Botany 57:246-257.
  430. Strand, M. 1997. Effect of mineral nutrient content on oxygen exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in needles of Norway spruce. Tree Physiology 17:221-230.
  431. Strengbom, J., T. Nasholm, and L. Ericson. 2004. Light, not nitrogen, limits growth of the grass Deschampsia flexuosa in boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Botany 82:430-435.
  432. Strengbom, J., J. Olofsson, J. Witzell, and J. Dahlgren. 2003. Effects of repeated damage and fertilization on palatability of Vaccinium myrtillus to grey sided voles, Clethrionomys rufocanus. Oikos 103:133-141.
  433. Strengbom, J., and P. B. Reich. 2006. Elevated [CO2] and increased N supply reduce leaf disease and related photosynthetic impacts on solidago rigida. Oecologia 149:519-525.
  434. Sundberg, B., T. Nasholm, and K. Palmqvist. 2001. The effect of nitrogen on growth and key thallus components in the two tripartite lichens, Nephroma arcticum and Peltigera aphthosa. Plant Cell and Environment 24:517-527.
  435. Suriyagoda, L. D. B., M. H. Ryan, M. Renton, and H. Lambers. 2010. Multiple adaptive responses of Australian native perennial legumes with pasture potential to grow in phosphorus- and moisture-limited environments. Annals of Botany 105:755-767.
  436. Talhelm, A. F., K. S. Pregitzer, and A. J. Burton. 2011. No evidence that chronic nitrogen additions increase photosynthesis in mature sugar maple forests. Ecological Applications 21:2413-2424.
  437. Tang, X., J. M. Li, Y. B. Ma, X. Y. Hao, and X. Y. Li. 2008. Phosphorus efficiency in long-term (15 years) wheat-maize cropping systems with various soil and climate conditions. Field Crops Research 108:231-237.
  438. Temperton, V. M., S. J. Grayston, G. Jackson, C. V. M. Barton, P. Millard, and P. G. Jarvis. 2003. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment. Tree Physiology 23:1051-1059.
  439. Thayer, S. S., S. B. St Clair, C. B. Field, and S. C. Somerville. 2008. Accentuation of phosphorus limitation in geranium dissectum by nitrogen: An ecological genomics study. Global Change Biology 14:1877-1890.
  440. Thomas, R. B., M. A. Bashkin, and D. D. Richter. 2000. Nitrogen inhibition of nodulation and N2 fixation of a tropical N2-fixing tree (Gliricidia sepium) grown in elevated atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist 145:233-243.
  441. Thomas, S. M., D. Whitehead, J. B. Reid, F. J. Cook, J. A. Adams, and A. C. Leckie. 1999. Growth, loss, and vertical distribution of Pinus radiata fine roots growing at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration. Global Change Biology 5:107-121.
  442. Thomas, V. F. D., S. Braun, and W. Fluckiger. 2006. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica). Environmental Pollution 143:341-354.
  443. Tomassen, H. B. M., A. J. P. Smolders, L. P. M. Lamers, and J. G. M. Roelofs. 2003. Stimulated growth of Betula pubescens and Molinia caerulea on ombrotrophic bogs: Role of high levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Journal of Ecology 91:357-370.
  444. Tomassen, H. B. M., A. J. P. Smolders, J. Limpens, L. P. M. Lamers, and J. G. M. Roelofs. 2004. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: Desiccation or high N deposition? Journal of Applied Ecology 41:139-150.
  445. Torbert, H. A., S. A. Prior, H. H. Rogers, and C. W. Wood. 2000. Review of elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on agro-ecosystems: Residue decomposition processes and soil C storage. Plant and Soil 224:59-73.
  446. Touchette, B. W., J. M. Burkholder, and H. B. Glasgow. 2003. Variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) morphology and internal nutrient composition as influenced by increased temperature and water column nitrate. Estuaries 26:142-155.
  447. Treseder, K. K., and P. M. Vitousek. 2001. Potential ecosystem-level effects of genetic variation among populations of metrosideros polymorpha from a soil fertility gradient in Hawaii. Oecologia 126:266-275.
  448. Tripler, C. E., C. D. Canham, R. S. Inouye, and J. L. Schnurr. 2002. Soil nitrogen availability, plant luxury consumption, and herbivory by white-tailed deer. Oecologia 133:517-524.
  449. Tu, L. H., T. X. Hu, J. A. Zhang, R. H. Li, H. Z. Dai, and S. H. Luo. 2011. Short-term simulated nitrogen deposition increases carbon sequestration in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation. Plant and Soil 340:383-396.
  450. Turner, C. L., and A. K. Knapp. 1996. Responses of a C4 grass and three C3 forbs to variation in nitrogen and light in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 77:1738-1749.
  451. Tyler, A. C., T. A. Mastronicola, and K. J. McGlathery. 2003. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen limitation of primary production along a natural marsh chronosequence. Oecologia 136:431-438.
  452. Tyree, M. C., J. R. Seiler, C. A. Maier, and K. H. Johnsen. 2009. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: Effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology. Tree Physiology 29:1117-1131.
  453. Utriainen, J., and T. Holopainen. 2001. Nitrogen availability modifies the ozone responses of Scots pine seedlings exposed in an open-field system. Tree Physiology 21:1205-1213.
  454. van den Berg, L. J. L., H. B. M. Tomassen, J. G. M. Roelofs, and R. Bobbink. 2005. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on coastal dune grassland: A mesocosm study. Environmental Pollution 138:77-85.
  455. Van Der Heijden, E., S. K. Verbeek, and P. J. C. Kuiper. 2000. Elevated atmospheric CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition: Effects on C and N metabolism and growth of the peat moss Sphagnum recurvum P. Beauv. Var. Mucronatum (russ.) warnst. Global Change Biology 6:201-212.
  456. van der Hoek, D., A. J. E. M. van Mierlo, and G. van, J. M. 2004. Nutrient limitation and nutrient-driven shifts in plant species composition in a species-rich fen meadow. Journal of Vegetation Science 15:389-396.
  457. Van der Schaaf, C., and K. McNabb. 2004. Winter nitrogen fertilization of loblolly pine seedlings. Plant and Soil 265:295-299.
  458. van der Waal, C., H. de Kroon, I. M. A. Heitkonig, A. K. Skidmore, F. van Langevelde, W. F. de Boer, R. Slotow, R. C. Grant, M. P. S. Peel, E. M. Kohi, H. J. de Knegt, and H. H. T. Prins. 2011. Scale of nutrient patchiness mediates resource partitioning between trees and grasses in a semi-arid savanna. Journal of Ecology 99:1124-1133.
  459. van Dijk, J., B. Robroek, I. Kardel, and M. Wassen. 2012. Combined effects of nitrogen enrichment, sulphur pollution and climate change on fen meadow vegetation N:P stoichiometry and biomass. Biogeochemistry 111:139-150.
  460. van Duren, I. C., D. M. Pegtel, B. A. Aerts, and J. A. Inberg. 1997. Nutrient supply in undrained and drained Calthion meadows. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:829-838.
  461. van Heerwaarden, L. M., S. Toet, and R. Aerts. 2003. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiency and proficiency in six sub-arctic bog species after 4 years of nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Ecology 91:1060-1070.
  462. van Heerwaarden, L. M., S. Toet, R. S. P. van Logtestijn, and R. Aerts. 2005. Internal nitrogen dynamics in the graminoid Molinia caerulea under higher N supply and elevated CO2 concentrations. Plant and Soil 277:255-264.
  463. Verhoeven, J. T. A., B. Beltman, E. Dorland, S. A. Robat, and R. Bobbink. 2011. Differential effects of ammonium and nitrate deposition on fen phanerogams and bryophytes. Applied Vegetation Science 14:149-157.
  464. Villar-Salvador, P., R. Planelles, E. Enriquez, and J. P. Rubira. 2004. Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes, and field performance relationships in the Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex L. Forest Ecology and Management 196:257-266.
  465. Vitousek, P. 1983. Nitrogen turnover in a ragweed-dominated 1st-year old field in southern Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 110:46-53.
  466. Vitousek, P. M. 1997. Nutrient limitation and soil development: Experimental test of a biogeochemical theory. Biogeochemistry 37:63-75.
  467. Vitousek, P. M. 1998. Foliar and litter nutrients, nutrient resorption, and decomposition in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha. Ecosystems 1:401-407.
  468. Vitousek, P. M., and S. Hobbie. 2000. Heterotrophic nitrogen fixation in decomposing litter: Patterns and regulation. Ecology 81:2366-2376.
  469. Vitousek, P. M., L. R. Walker, L. D. Whiteaker, and P. A. Matson. 1993. Nutrient limitations to plant-growth during primary succession in Hawaii Volcanos National Park. Biogeochemistry 23:197-215.
  470. Voisin, A. S., C. Salon, N. G. Munier-Jolain, and B. Ney. 2002. Effect of mineral nitrogen on nitrogen nutrition and biomass partitioning between the shoot and roots of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant and Soil 242:251-262.
  471. Volin, J. C., and P. B. Reich. 1996. Interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of three perennial species grown in low and high nitrogen. Physiologia Plantarum 97:674-684.
  472. von Oheimb, G., S. A. Power, K. Falk, U. Friedrich, A. Mohamed, A. Krug, N. Boschatzke, and W. Hardtle. 2010. N:P ratio and the nature of nutrient limitation in calluna-dominated heathlands. Ecosystems 13:317-327.
  473. Wanek, W., and G. Zotz. 2011. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant 15N fractionation and foliar N:P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. New Phytologist 192:462-470.
  474. Wang, D., S. A. Heckathorn, K. Mainali, and E. W. Hamilton. 2008. Effects of N on plant response to heat-wave: A field study with prairie vegetation. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50:1416-1425.
  475. Wang, L. X., P. D'Odorico, L. R. O'Halloran, K. Caylor, and S. Macko. 2010. Combined effects of soil moisture and nitrogen availability variations on grass productivity in African savannas. Plant and Soil 328:95-108.
  476. Wang, M., S. Shi, F. Lin, Z. Q. Hao, P. Jiang, and G. H. Dai. 2012. Effects of soil water and nitrogen on growth and photosynthetic response of manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica) seedlings in northeastern China. Plos One 7.
  477. Warren, C. R., and M. A. Adams. 2002. Phosphorus affects growth and partitioning of nitrogen to rubisco in Pinus pinaster. Tree Physiology 22:11-19.
  478. Warren, C. R., J. F. McGrath, and M. A. Adams. 2005. Differential effects of N, P and K on photosynthesis and partitioning of N in Pinus pinaster needles. Annals of Forest Science 62:1-8.
  479. Watanabe, M., Y. Watanabe, S. Kitaoka, H. Utsugi, K. Kita, and T. Koike. 2011. Growth and photosynthetic traits of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. Japonica x L. kaempferi) under elevated CO2 concentration with low nutrient availability. Tree Physiology 31:965-975.
  480. Weand, M. P., M. A. Arthur, G. M. Lovett, F. Sikora, and K. C. Weathers. 2010. The phosphorus status of northern hardwoods differs by species but is unaffected by nitrogen fertilization. Biogeochemistry 97:159-181.
  481. Weiss, M., S. E. Hobbie, and G. M. Gettel. 2005. Contrasting responses of nitrogen-fixation in arctic lichens to experimental and ambient nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 37:396-401.
  482. Whitehead, S. J., S. J. M. Caporn, and M. C. Press. 1997. Effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and photosynthesis of two upland perennials: Calluna vulgaris and Pteridium aquilinum. New Phytologist 135:201-211.
  483. Wicklein, H. F., S. V. Ollinger, M. E. Martin, D. Y. Hollinger, L. C. Lepine, M. C. Day, M. K. Bartlett, A. D. Richardson, and R. J. Norby. 2012. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2. Oecologia 169:915-925.
  484. Wiemken, V., K. Ineichen, and T. Boller. 2001. Development of ectomycorrhizas in model beech-spruce ecosystems on siliceous and calcareous soil: A 4-year experiment with atmospheric CO2 enrichment and nitrogen fertilization. Plant and Soil 234:99-108.
  485. Wienand, K. T., and W. D. Stock. 1995. Long-term phosphorus fertilization effects on the litter dynamics of an age sequence of Pinus elliottii plantations in the southern Cape of South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 75:135-146.
  486. Will, R. E., D. Markewitz, R. L. Hendrick, D. F. Meason, T. R. Crocker, and B. E. Borders. 2006. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics for 13-year-old loblolly pine stands receiving complete competition control and annual N fertilizer. Forest Ecology and Management 227:155-168.
  487. Wilsey, B. J. 1996. Urea additions and defoliation affect plant responses to elevated CO2 in a C3 grass from yellowstone national park. Oecologia 108:321-327.
  488. Woo, I., and J. B. Zedler. 2002. Can nutrients alone shift a sedge meadow towards dominance by the invasive Typha x glauca? Wetlands 22:509-521.
  489. Wookey, P. A., C. H. Robinson, A. N. Parsons, J. M. Welker, M. C. Press, T. V. Callaghan, and J. A. Lee. 1995. Environmental constraints on the growth, photosynthesis and reproductive development of Dryas octopetala at a high arctic polar semidesert, svalbard. Oecologia 102:478-489.
  490. Wright, J. P., and A. Sutton-Grier. 2012. Does the leaf economic spectrum hold within local species pools across varying environmental conditions? Functional Ecology 26:1390-1398.
  491. Xia, G. H., L. L. Cheng, A. Lakso, and M. Goffinet. 2009. Effects of nitrogen supply on source-sink balance and fruit size of 'Gala' apple trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 134:126-133.
  492. Yang, L.-d., G.-x. Wang, Y. Yang, and Y. Yang. 2012. Responses of leaf functional traits and nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in Abies fabiri seedlings in Gongga Mountain to simulated nitrogen deposition. Chinese Journal of Ecology 31:44-50.
  493. Yang, L. X., H. Y. Huang, H. J. Yang, G. C. Dong, H. J. Liu, G. Liu, J. G. Zhu, and Y. L. Wang. 2007. Seasonal changes in the effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) ion nitrogen (N) uptake and utilization of rice at three levels of N fertilization. Field Crops Research 100:189-199.
  494. Yin, C. Y., X. Y. Pang, and K. Chen. 2009. The effects of water, nutrient availability and their interaction on the growth, morphology and physiology of two poplar species. Environmental and Experimental Botany 67:196-203.
  495. Yoshida, L. C., and E. B. Allen. 2001. Response to ammonium and nitrate by a mycorrhizal annual invasive grass and native shrub in southern California. American Journal of Botany 88:1430-1436.
  496. Zak, D. R., and K. S. Pregitzer. 1988. Nitrate assimilation by herbaceous ground flora in late successional forests. Journal of Ecology 76:537-546.
  497. Zak, D. R., K. S. Pregitzer, P. S. Curtis, C. S. Vogel, W. E. Holmes, and J. Lussenhop. 2000. Atmospheric CO2, soil-n availability, and allocation of biomass and nitrogen by Populus tremuloides. Ecological Applications 10:34-46.
  498. Zanetti, S., U. A. Hartwig, A. Luscher, T. Hebeisen, M. Frehner, B. U. Fischer, G. R. Hendrey, H. Blum, and J. Nosberger. 1996. Stimulation of symbiotic N2 fixation in Trifolium repens L. under elevated atmospheric pCO2 in a grassland ecosystem. Plant Physiology 112:575-583.
  499. Zhang, J. H., J. B. Zhang, and S. W. Qin. 2010a. Spectral reflectance characteristics of summer maize under long-term fertilization. Plant Nutrition and Fertitizer Science 16:874-879.
  500. Zhang, L., D. X. Wu, H. Q. Shi, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhan, and S. X. Zhou. 2011. Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N-2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in temperate grassland in China. Plos One 6.
  501. Zhang, L., Y. X. Yang, X. Y. Zhan, C. J. Zhang, S. X. Zhou, and D. X. Wu. 2010b. Responses of a dominant temperate grassland plant (Leymus chinensis) to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition in China. Journal of Environmental Quality 39:251-259.
  502. Zhang, L. H., C. C. Song, D. X. Wang, and Y. Y. Wang. 2007. Effects of exogenous nitrogen on freshwater marsh plant growth and N2O fluxes in Sanjiang Plain, northeast China. Atmospheric Environment 41:1080-1090.
  503. Zhao, C. Z., and Q. Liu. 2012. Effects of soil warming and nitrogen fertilization on leaf physiology of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 34:1837-1846.
  504. Zhao, H. X., X. A. Xu, Y. B. Zhang, H. Korpelainen, and C. Y. Li. 2011a. Nitrogen deposition limits photosynthetic response to elevated CO2 differentially in a dioecious species. Oecologia 165:41-54.
  505. Zhao, J., R. Y. Zhang, X. E. Li, L. Y. Chen, and G. Wang. 2011b. Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in Potentilla fruticosa L. affected by internal and external factors in the subalpine in Gannan. Journal of Lanzhou University 47:88-92.
  506. Zhao, Q., X. Y. Liu, Y. L. Hu, and D. H. Zeng. 2010. Effects of nitrogen addition on nutrient allocation and nutrient resorption efficiency in Larix gmelinii. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 46:14-19.
  507. Zogg, G. P., D. R. Zak, A. J. Burton, and K. S. Pregitzer. 1996. Fine root respiration in northern hardwood forests in relation to temperature and nitrogen availability. Tree Physiology 16:719-725.
  508. Zotz, G., and R. Asshoff. 2010. Growth in Epiphytic bromeliads: Response to the relative supply of phosphorus and nitrogen. Plant Biology 12:108-113.