Appendix H. Analysis of single-trophic-level and multi-trophic-level studies at trophic distances of 1.
|FIG. H1. Relative response magnitude for single level and multiple level studies at trophic distances of 1. Error bars indicate ± 1 SE.|
|FIG. H2. Relative response magnitude by consumer trophic distance for the subset of studies that document multi-trophic-level response extending to trophic distances of 2 or greater. Open, gray, and black circles represent reproductive, aggregative, and combined responses, respectively. Points above the dashed line show directly amplifying consumer responses, while points below the dashed line show directly attenuating consumer responses. Data points are randomly jittered along the x-axis for clarity.|