ESA's Congressional Fellow Evan
Notman was in D.C. for the AAAS orientation. He has secured a placement
on Capitol Hill and has spent time with staff at HQ. See Public
Affairs Office Report below for details.
EPSCoR presentation: McCarter participated
in a panel at the NSF Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive
Research (EPSCoR) national meeting. EPSCoR was created to promote
the development of a state's scientific and technical resources through
partnerships involving the state's university, industry, and governmental
resources and federal research enterprises. The panel addressed the
role of national organizations in training and ensuring diversity
in the next generation of scientists.
to Table of Contents
Frontiers has almost reached the end of its
first volume, so the Frontiers team has been taking stock,
thinking of ways to consolidate the journals initial success,
and considering possible new developments. The feedback from the
6-month readers survey has been very helpful in this regard, and
although the responses were overwhelmingly positive, all criticisms
and suggestions are being carefully evaluated.
Now that the journal is established, particular efforts
are being made to get it recognized by the main indexing and abstracting
organizations (ISI, BIOSIS, etc). Negotiations are underway to improve
the eco-friendliness of the paper stocks on which the journal is
printed (a point that appeared a number of times in the reader survey).
New commissioning initiatives are being undertaken, and criteria
have been developed for a new article type, namely, a series of
slightly shorter essay-style articles, outlining innovative theories,
new ideas, old ideas that deserve to be revisited, or interesting
commentaries on some current (or former) hot topic in ecology, environmental
science, environmental/ecology education, or related specialties.
These will run under the heading Concepts and Questions.
Journal staff continue to attend conferences to promote
the new publication, including Silvers visit to the BES Annual
Meeting (Manchester, UK) and Emerys attendance at the World
Forestry Congress, both in September. The journal was on display
at two conferences in November: Invasive Weeds (Fort Lauderdale,
Florida) and the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry (Austin, Texas).
In conjunction with the ESA Executive Director and Finance Director,
plans and timelines are being developed to build up advertising
and institutional subscriptions for Frontiers.
Finance and membership report
Accountants from the firm of Gelman, Rosenberg, and Freedman completed
our annual audit the week of 6 October. A draft of the audit report
will be reviewed by Vice-President for Finance Norm Christensen,
Executive Director McCarter, and Chief Financial Officer Elizabeth
Biggs, and accepted by the Governing Board in November.
ESA had its first increase in membership in several
years. As had been the trend in recent years, member journal subscriptions
declined, and we also experienced a decrease in institutional subscriptions.
The chart below shows the past 5 years for comparison.
Membership and subscriptions
of members subscribing
of members subscribing
of members subscribing
The decrease in the number of institutional subscribers in 2001 was
not a real decrease, but rather a change in how we record subscriptions
from the Swets subscription agency. To simplify the data-entry process
we now enter a single record for all journals shipping to the main
office of Swets Blackwell. In prior years we had a separate record
for each order
2003 was our third year offering on-line
subscriptions to institutions, and the number of subscriptions continues
Chapter and Section memberships
Members joining chapters and sections continue to decline with a
to Table of Contents
Several other breakdowns that we found of interest:
ESA members by ethnicity:
· Hispanic 261
· Black 51
· Native American 10
· Unreported/other 1424
Ecological Visions Committee
Committee Chair Margaret Palmer updated the Board in detail on the
activities of the Ecological Visions Committee. The Science Office
continues to provide staff support to the Committee. Rhonda Kranz
and Cliff Duke attended the third meeting of the Committee in Annapolis,
Maryland on 2528 August 2003, and will attend the fourth (and
final planned) meeting of the Committee at the Sevilleta LTER site
in New Mexico on 31 October3 November 2003. ESA members provided
substantive and useful feedback on the action areas proposed by the
Committee, both through a questionnaire available on the project web
site: http://www.esa.org/ecovisions, and at the ESA meeting
in Savannah. The Committee will provide a report to the Board in January
2004, and is working on submission for publication in Science and
Frontiers in 2004. In addition, Cliff Duke will present a paper
describing the Committees efforts at the Society of Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry Annual Meeting in Austin, Texas, in November;
Rhonda Kranz will make a similar presentation to the Society for Risk
Analysis in December.
ESA Panel on Vegetation Classification
Lori Hidinger continues to provide support to the ESA Panel on Vegetation
Classification, which is charged with facilitating and supporting
the development, implementation, and use of a standardized vegetation
classification for the U.S.; guiding professional ecologists in defining
and adopting standards for vegetation sampling and analysis; collaborating
with partner organizations to maintain scientific credibility of the
classification through a peer review system; and promoting and facilitating
international collaboration. The Panel is moving forward with the
development of its Guidelines for Describing Associations and
Alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification to
provide expert opinion on standards for classifying vegetation at
the floristic levels. In recent months, the Panel has been revising
the document to reflect comments received from the Federal Geographic
Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Bureau of Land
Management, and Panel members. Version 3 of the Guidelines
will be available for review by the Panel in early November, and for
dissemination on the Panels web site in early 2004. The Panel
will submit a report detailing the resolution of these comments to
the reviewers. The Panel is also exploring options for publishing
a hard copy version of the Guidelines. The Panel conducted
a workshop at the 2003 ESA Annual Meeting on analytical techniques
for defining vegetation types under the National Vegetation Classification.
A subcommittee of the Panel continues to develop and refine the VegBank
database for vegetation plot data, and will present a workshop at
the MidAtlantic Heritage Network meeting in early November. The Panel
is also working on a peer review system for plot data and vegetation
types. Finally, the Panel is working with the FGDC and various federal
agencies to revise a Memorandum of Understanding signed by ESA, FGDC,
TNC, and USGS in 1999 to work together on the development of the National
Vegetation Classification. The revisions will reflect the creation
of NatureServe and include additional Federal agencies.
Invasive Plants in Natural and Managed Systems: Linking Science
Hidinger supported ESAs participation in the Invasive Plants
in Natural and Managed Systems: Linking Science and Management conference,
37 November 2003, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The conference
was a cooperative effort with the Weed Science Society of America
and many other scientific societies, federal and state agencies, and
The Conference successfully met and exceeded its goals of (1) promoting
interdisciplinary exchange of scientific information among all researchers
working with harmful invasive plants; (2) enhancing dialogue between
scientists and resource managers to identify research gaps and accelerate
implementation of new science for the management of invasive plants;
and (3) fostering broad cooperation on the science and management
of invasive plants.
Over 750 ecologists, weed scientists, agricultural scientists, botanists,
land managers, weed management specialists, extension personnel, agriculture
and natural resource educators, nursery professionals, biological
control investigators and practitioners, and others interested in
invasive plant issues from around the world participated in this landmark
conference. Participants left the conference with new enthusiasm,
new knowledge, new contacts, and new confidence that we can and will
solve many invasive plant problems.
The Conference included 14 invited plenary speakers, 150 invited symposia
and workshop presenters, 72 contributed oral presentations, and over
250 poster presentations. These presentations were complemented by
seven roundtable discussions, 22 exhibits, and 10 field trips. The
design of each session allowed stimulating discussion and interaction
on various topics related to invasive plant science and management.
The Conference was financially supported by a wide array of government
agencies, industry groups, and nongovernmental organizations, all
cooperating to address the problems of invasive plants.
Harmful Algal Blooms Workshop and Plan
The Science Office continues its efforts supporting the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration in revising the National Plan for
Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algae, which was first issued in
1993. Under a cooperative agreement, Office staff are helping organize
a workshop that will be held in Charleston, South Carolina in March
2004. This workshop will review progress made in the last decade toward
achieving the goals of the 1993 plan and set the stage for issuing
a revised plan later in the year. Rhonda Kranz is working with a steering
committee chaired by Don Anderson of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
and John Ramsdell of NOAAs Charleston, South Carolina laboratory,
to plan the workshop. The committee is seeking input from the broad
community of harmful algal bloom research and management through a
questionnaire available on the project web site http://www.esa.org/HABPlan.
On 10 December, Cliff Duke will attend a session of the Second Symposium
on Harmful Marine Algae in the U.S., devoted to soliciting input to
the workshop. White papers on the topics of toxins, bloom ecology
and dynamics, food webs and fisheries, and infrastructure will be
developed to help guide the workshop. The steering committee has identified
45 experts in defined subject needs within these three themes to participate
in the workshop and help write the revised plan. Invitations were
sent out in early October. The revised Plan is scheduled to be completed
in summer 2004.
to Table of Contents
The Science Office continues to provide staff support to the Issues
in Ecology series, including assisting the new Editor-in-Chief
with learning the process and appointing a new Editorial Board. Issues
in Ecology reports under development include one on the impacts
of atmospheric deposition of toxic materials on coastal ecosystems
and another on principles of parasite ecology that relate to conservation
biology. The Editorial Board is also exploring potential Pan American
National Parks Ecological Research Fellowship Program
The National Parks Ecological Research (NPER) Fellowship Program is
a partnership of ESA, the National Parks Foundation (NPF), and the
National Park Service, and is funded through a grant from the Mellon
Foundation. The program encourages and supports outstanding postdoctoral
research in ecological sciences related to the flora of U.S. National
Parks, Monuments, Seashores, and other sites administered by the National
Park System. The Science Office supports the advertising, application,
and review process, while NPF supports the financial management of
the fellowships. Proposals for the 2003 NPER Fellowships were submitted
by 1 October 2003. Thirty-four proposals were received and are being
reviewed by a Review Committee chaired by Kay Gross. The Review Committee
will meet at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis
in Santa Barbara, 1922 November 2003, to select three new fellows
and hear presentations from most of the nine current fellows regarding
their research. The meeting will conclude with a field trip to Channel
Islands National Park to visit the research sites of Fellow Kristina
Embassy Science Fellows
The Science Office continues to work with the USDA Foreign Agriculture
Service (FAS) to manage the U.S. Department of States Embassy
Science Fellows Program, which places U.S. government scientists at
embassies overseas to provide expertise, advice, and assistance on
science- and technology-related issues. Six fellows participated in
2002, and ESA is continuing to support the project for the 2003 and
2004 cycles. Cliff Duke and Rhonda Kranz recently met with FAS staff
to get an update on program activities and explore options for new
activities, for example, possibly inviting Embassy Science Fellows
to present some of their work at ESA meetings.
Sustainable Resources Roundtables
Science staff represent ESA on the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable
and the Sustainable Water Resources Roundtable http://www.water.usgs.gov/wicp/acwi/swrr/.
Lori Hidinger chairs the Outreach Working Group and serves on the
Steering Committee of the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable.
The inaugural meeting of the Water Resources Roundtable was held
1011 December 2002, followed by a second meeting in June 2003.
Additional meetings are planned for 1314 November in Washington,
D.C., and 19-20 March in Palo Alto, California. Agency, business,
NGO, and academic representatives have attended the meetings and have
committed to being part of the ongoing roundtable and its development.
Rhonda Kranz serves on the steering committee and chairs a working
group on developing a conceptual framework and criteria for development
of sustainable water resource indicators. The committee has submitted
a paper on their conceptual framework for publication in Water
Resources Update, a publication of the Universities Council On
Water Resources. ESA has been discussing the possibility of collaborating
with the Roundtable on a future workshop.
Plant Conservation Alliance
ESA continues as a Cooperator with the Plant Conservation Alliance,
a cooperative program of a number of Federal agencies, which seeks
to address problems related to native plant conservation and restoration.
The Science Program Office represents ESA at Alliance meetings, which
are held every two months in the Washington area.
Science Office staff members are currently involved in several proposed
activities on behalf of ESA. Margaret Palmer has prepared a proposal
to NSF, Envisioning the Earths Future: an Experiment in Problem-solving,
Collaboration and Education, which ESA would support as a subcontractor.
This proposal would create a program in which multiple teams are chosen
in a competition and are given 1.5 years to develop a vision for how
the landscape of environmental science will differ from what we experience
today. Each team would design a collaborative process to answer these
questions. Groups would be selected based on the composition of their
interdisciplinary teams, the ideas they propose, and the creativity
of their collaborative design. All submitted full proposals would
be evaluated on their interdisciplinary nature, approach to collaboration,
and proposed outcome. Each team would present their project ideas
and collaborative design at the ESA meetings in 2004, and final results
in 2005. Final results from the teams and from the evaluation of the
collaboration will be published either in a special journal issue
or a book. ESA would implement an outreach program to use this project
to capture interest in the relevant science and issues.
Science Office staff are also developing a proposal to NSF for ESA
to lead a 3-day summit meeting of the leadership of the
major professional societies involved in environmental biology, with
the goal of developing a policy statement on data sharing and archiving,
and a roadmap for implementation by the societies. The roadmap would
contain a specific set of target steps and dates leading toward requirements
for the complete deposit of all data that support papers published
in the societies journals in computer archives accessible to
all. The proposed meeting would take place in late spring 2004.
Other activities in the scientific community
Science staff members also participate in the scientific community
in ways that help communicate ESA capabilities to the community, and
in turn inform the efforts of staff in the projects and activities
summarized above. For example, Hidinger serves on the Society for
Range Managements Nominating Committee and is a member of the
core group of the Invasive Weed Awareness Coalition. Kranz chairs
the Board of Directors of the Biodiversity Project, and serves on
the Board of the D.C. Environmentors Project. Duke serves as President
of the ChesapeakePotomac Chapter of the Society of Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry, and is an active member of a number of other
The SBI Steering Committee continues to provide guidance and support
for the efforts of the Science Office. The Committee is currently
chaired by Cathy Pringle (University of Georgia) and co-chaired by
Jim Clark (Duke University). The other committee members are Tracy
Benning (University of San Francisco), Elizabeth Chornesky (Consultant),
Laurie Drinkwater (Cornell University), Laura Huenneke (New Mexico
State University), Garth Redfield (South Florida Water Management
District), Ricardo Rozzi (Parque Etnobotanico Omora, Chile), and Carolyn
Sieg (U.S. Forest Service). The Committee met most recently in Savannah
at the ESA Annual Meeting, where they were updated on current Science
Office activities and discussed a retrospective paper on SBI that
the Committee is planning.
to Table of Contents
ESAs Congressional Fellow, Dr. Evan Notman, received his placement
on Capitol Hill. We are very happy to report that Evan will be joining
the minority staff of the Senate Agriculture Committee. He began his
placement with work on forest fire legislation currently before the
ESA took an active role in pushing for NSF funding in the FY04 budget,
including NEON. Maggie Smith, in conjunction with AIBS, prepared a
letter from ESA President William Schlesinger advocating adoption
of the NSF funding levels put forth by the House of Representatives
($9.3 million more than the Senate proposal). Furthermore, the House
mark includes funding for NEON in the Major Research Equipment and
Facilities Construction Account, while the Senate mark does not include
NEON. ESA requested that House spending levels both for NSF BIO and
NEON be adopted.
ESA joined with other scientific societies in signing the CNSF Coalition
letter supporting the House mark for NSF. Also, the newly formed Coalition
for USGS, of which ESA is a member, wrote to House and Senate appropriators
thanking them for restoring the USGS budget from cuts proposed by
the Administration, and urging them to support science funding.
ESA joined a broad community of organizations interested in forest
fire policy to ask the Congress to pass a supplemental spending bill
to fully fund fire-fighting costs and restore funding to accounts
that were emptied to pay for fire fighting.
ESA has joined a new coalition seeking to address the chronic problem
of fire fighting funding. The coalition represents a large cross-section
of interested parties. ESA expects to be very active in pushing for
reform on this front.
ESA submitted comments on legislation establishing three fire research
institutes in the Southwest at the behest of the House Science Committee.
The House Resources Committee found the comments very helpful and
requested that ESA staffer Smith meet with committee staff to further
explain ESAs position and give input on the legislation. Smith
conveyed ESAs support of research funding, but emphasized that
a competitive grant process, rather than earmarks, would improve the
credibility and possibly the results of the research. ESA also advocated
specific, more scientifically based language changes in the text of
ESA was contacted by Resources Committee staff, requesting comments
on Endangered Species Act Amendments. The Committee is in the early
stage of discussing amendments and attempting to reauthorize the Act.
ESA was asked to comment on the scientific merits of the proposals.
In addition, Smith contacted numerous ecologists with Endangered Species
expertise asking for comment letters to give the committee guidance
in their work. Anyone who would like additional information on ESAs
comments or would like the opportunity to supply the committee with
their own comments should contact Smith at firstname.lastname@example.org.
ESA also supplied comments to the Fish and Wildlife Service regarding
their proposed regulation changes to the Endangered Species Act. The
Service proposes to remove the regulations that make trade in foreign
endangered species illegal. To view ESAs comments please visit:
The first round of invitations to journals to join an expanded ecology
JSTOR collection went out on 31 October. Thirty journals will be invited
in this round. Also, ESA JSTOR Selection Committee Chair Rob Colwell
approached the committee asking for their input in prioritizing the
list of JSTOR alternate titles. We expect that a second round of invitations
will be necessary.
Annie Drinkard, ESAs Public Affairs Officer in charge of media
relations, coordinated coverage of this years ESA Annual Meeting,
generating great interest both locally and nationally. Reporters produced
over 50 stories during the past 3 months. Several freelance science
writers, press from Science, Science News, Biomednet, as well
as the local CBS affiliate and the Savannah Morning News, covered
the meeting. Drinkard assisted in screening the AAAS Science Journalism
awards, working with other committee members to evaluate the scientific
accuracy of the entries. The awards recognize outstanding reporting
for a general audience and honor individuals for their coverage of
the sciences, engineering, and mathematics. Sue Silver worked with
the University of Utah News and Public Relations office in promoting
a recent article published in Frontiers, which gained excellent
coverage in the media.
Reporter-initiated calls continued strongly this fall, showing the
medias awareness of ESA as a resource for ecological information.
The New York Times, NPR, United Press International, Rolling
Stone Magazine, and ABC news.com all recently contacted the Society.
Down on the Farm (4 August 2003)
Pandoras Box of Pathogens (4 August 2003)
Invasive Aliens (5 August 2003)
Fat Chance for Hosts (8 September 2003)
Conference on Invasive and Alien Plants (6 October 2003)
Press coverage over the past three months included:
Associated Press, BBC, Canadian Broadcast Corporation, Environmental
News Network, Environment News Service, Galileu (Brazilian Science
News Magazine), GreenBiz.com, Innovations Report, Los Angeles Daily
News, National Geographic News, NPR, Salt Lake Tribune, Science,
Science Daily, Scientific American, United Press International,
VPRO (Dutch public television), Wissenschaft Online GmbH (German News
to Table of Contents
The SEEDS advisory board met in Savannah, Georgia, and discussed the
direction of the program. SEEDS regional coordinator Melissa Jurgensen-Armstrong
attended the SACNAS meeting in early October and Jurgensen-Armstrong
and Katherine Hoffman attended the American Indian Science and Engineering
Society Meeting in November. A SEEDS field trip focused on Urban Ecology
took place 69 November 2003 in the Washington/Baltimore area.
A selection committee of ESA members recommended 40 of the 60 applicants,
which is the best pool of students ESA has had to date. SEEDS staff
also visited 4 HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)
and 3 Tribal Colleges this fall.
The Bioscience Education Network (BEN) collaborative executive council
met in October. The group is exploring alternative funding sources
for the collaborative group. The database structure of ESAs
portal site, ecoed.net, is being upgraded to comply with
the BEN portal. A survey on the utility of Teaching Issues and Experiments
in Ecology web site was disseminated and the results are currently
being analyzed. Jason Taylor, ESA Director of Education, attended
a strategic planning meeting for TIEE held in Tempe, Arizona on 12
November; the future direction of the project was discussed. The Profiles
of Ecologists web site has been updated and can be accessed
This site profiles the diverse career paths of many ESA ecologists.
Taylor attended the NSF Undergraduate Mentoring in Environmental Biology
(UMEB) P.I. meeting in September, the North American Association of
Environmental Education (NAAEE) in October and the ESA Visions meeting
in August. The ESA Education Office is in the process of completing
fact sheets on Traditional Ecological Knowledge, and Environmental
Journal production and personnel
We are delighted to report that the production schedule is now back
on track after the Annual Meetings interruption. That effect
was compounded by the fact that our Production Editor, Jill Leichter,
resigned to move to New Zealand. She will be greatly missed. Leichter
played a major role in designing and choosing the photos for the first
of our new color covers. She also brought a new level of excellence
to the graphics in ESAs journals. We have seen a huge increase
in the number of plates showing study organisms and sites since Leichter
came on board, adding visual appeal to authors articles, and
without any additional cost to ESA.
Our newest employee, Regina Przygocki, brings to us a new level of
expertise in the realm of computer graphics and online publications.
Regina most recently worked as Director of Publications for Voyagers
International Tours (an ecotourism company that organized trips for
many university alumni and other non-profit organizations). Przygocki
started work full-time on 3 November. She has already made her mark,
and we are expecting her to be a huge asset as we continue our move
toward a digital world in the Publications Office.
The July issue of Ecology was the first issue with the new
full-color coverdesign. We are very happy with the results, and we
hope our readers were pleasantly surprised. We tried to make the new
cover design look new yet familiar. Many stylistic elements of the
old covers have been preserved, including the distinguishing colors
of ESAs three long-standing journals. We have also kept the
Table of Contents on the back cover of the print journals for the
convenience of our readers. Finally, the covers of Ecology, Ecological
Monographs, Ecological Applications, and the now exclusively digital
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America now bear a familial
resemblance to Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.
ESA purchased a new Check Point firewall appliance for the Publications
Office, and installation was completed in September. The new firewall
will provide greater security for the web server and will also allow
VPN access for programmers at the Allen Press to make requested changes
to the online submission and review system. The installation was complicated
by the development of a leak in the roof of our (new) building, which
seemed to target our equipment room. The building owner has now completely
replaced the roof, but that project delayed the firewall installation,
which in turn slowed down our progress with the new tracking system.
We are now back on track with implementation of the system.
Online submission and review system
We are moving ahead with implementation of the online tracking system.
We have completed the internal testing and role playing in our office,
and we are now actually using the system for a subset of submitted
manuscripts. Feedback from editors and reviewers is being collected.
We are on track to move to the new system for all submissions effective
1 January 2004. We are so confident of this date that we have placed
announcements in the November and December 2003 issues of the journals.
to Table of Contents
Annual Meeting 2003Savannah, Georgia
1,895 ESA Members (1,155 Regular Members and
740 Student Members)
Members (5 Regular Members and 1 Student Member)
654 Non Members (319 Regular
Nonmembers and 335 Student Nonmembers)
12 VIP Guests
A total of 312 responses to the Postmeeting Evaluation were received,
a 14% response, with 15 additional responses to the separate exhibitor
survey. Copies of the entire evaluation have been sent to the Program
Chair and his assistant, the Local Host Chair, the Savannah CVB, and
Savannah International Trade and Convention Center.
Annual Meeting 2004Portland, Oregon
Paul Ringold and Allen Solomon, Local Host Co-Chairs, have assembled
an 8-person working committee. They are lining up 22 scientific field
trips and are interviewing local graduate student volunteer coordinator
candidates. The Co-Chairs and committee are also developing the Pacific
Northwest Authors and Poets evening, an opening ceremony by area First
Nation tribes, and entertainment for the ESA Social in the Rose Garden.
The newly enlarged Oregon Convention Center will be able to handle
all scientific sessions, exhibits and posters, evening sessions, Board
and Committee Meetings, Section and Chapter business meetings, and
mixers under one roof. The ESA hotels are all linked by MAX, Portlands
free light rail system, which also runs to the airport and to within
short walking distance of almost all hotels. The only lodgings requiring
bus shuttling are the dormitories at Portland State University and
Lewis and Clark College.
ESA Staff Annual Meeting Planning Team (Elizabeth Biggs, Ellen Cardwell,
Tricia Crocker, and Frank McDonough) have begun their monthly planning
meetings coordinating all aspects of budget, logistics, exhibits,
registration, and staff support for the 2004 Annual Meeting.
Invasive Plants Conference (IPINAMS-EMAPi7) 2003Fort Lauderdale,
This conference, co-organized by the Weed Science Society of America
and ESA, took place at the Wyndham Bonaventure in Ft. Lauderdale,
38 November 2003, preceded by an All-TNC, All-Invasives Workshop
on 23 November. Originally budgeted for 300 attendees, the conference
opened with more than 750 registrants; 100 Nature Conservancy employees
registered to attend the pre-Conference workshop. Meetings Manager
Cardwell coordinated the hotel and other meeting arrangements.
Annual Meeting 2005 with INTECOLMontreal, Canada
Program Co-Chairs Paul Ringold and INTECOLs Rebecca Sharitz,
joined by INTECOLs treasurer Gene Turner and ESAs Meetings
Manager Ellen Cardwell, held a productive trip to Montreal to undertake
advance planning for this meeting. Tourism Montreal was very helpful
in making arrangements and providing detailed information.
A timeline for proposal and abstract submission has been developed
by the Program Co-Chairs. Advance notice to INTECOL members will be
sent in late 2003 and will be posted for all interested on the ESA
Montreal meeting site.
The Palais de Congress, the newly expanded, spacious Montreal Convention
Center, will be able to accommodate all the anticipated scientific
sessions, evening sessions, Posters and Exhibits, Board and Committee
meetings, Section and Chapter business meetings, and mixers and social
functions under one roof.
All lodging for this meeting is located between two and seven blocks
walk from the Palais de Congress, which is also located near Montreals
Old City and other city areas, with plentiful restaurants, amenities,
and shopping. Favorable rates have been negotiated at full-service
and economy hotels. Dormitory lodging will be at University of Quebec,
Montreal and McGill University.
A draft task outline and timeline for the proposed 20052006
themed meeting in Mexico was prepared for Governing Board review.
A Letter of Intent has been sent to the Greater Milwaukee Convention
and Visitors Bureau confirming the Governing Boards approval
of Milwaukee as the location of the 2008 Annual Meeting.
Meetings co-Chair Steve Chaplin, Executive Director Katherine McCarter,
and Meetings Manager Ellen Cardwell went to Calgary, Canada, to conduct
a site visit for a prospective 2009 Annual Meeting in the Rocky Mountain
In coming months, Cardwell, Chaplin, and the Meetings Committee will
be working on a new future meetings survey to follow up the earlier
survey and pursue additional questions. We have received a large number
of responses for both postmeeting evaluations and the future meetings
surveys, which are extremely helpful in responding to perceptions
and needs from both meeting attendee and nonattendees alike.
to Table of Contents
and Chapter News
SECTION NEWSLETTER ~~2003 Edward S. Deevey Award
Edward S. Deevey, a founder of modern paleoecology, was a dedicated
student advisor who mentored
many investigators active in the field today. To honor his memory
and encourage high-quality research by graduate students, the Paleoecology
Section presents an award to the student making the best oral or poster
presentation in paleoecology at the ESA Annual Meeting. Don Falk,
a graduate student in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University
of Arizona, won the 2003 Deevey award for his talk entitled, The
eventarea relationship: scale dependence in the fire regime
of a New Mexico ponderosa pine forest. Mr. Falks dissertation
research, which he conducts at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research,
explores spatial and temporal variation in the historic fire regime
in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico using dendrochronology to reconstruct
fire history in Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands. In
addition, he applies analytical tests based on analogy with speciesarea
relationships to evaluate the form and underlying mechanisms of scale
dependence in the fire regimes. The committee was particularly impressed
with the quality and clarity of his presentation and the implications
of his research for fire history reconstruction. He completed his
B.A. at Oberlin College in 1972 and an M.A. in environmental policy
at Tufts University in 1981. Falk was co-founder of the Center for
Plant Conservation at the Missouri Botanical Garden and Executive
Director of the Society for Ecological Restoration before returning
to Arizona for his doctorate. The Paleoecology Section thanks students
who competed for this years Deevey Award and encourages others
to participate in the 2004 competition, to be held at the ESA Annual
Meeting in Portland, Oregon. The Section also appreciates the efforts
of the 2003 Deevey Award Selection Committee: Jason Lynch (Chair),
Dan Gavin, Andrea Lloyd, and Phil Townsend.
Chair: Paul Schmalzer (20022004) Paul.Schmalzeremail@example.com
Vice-Chair: Joan Walker (20032005) firstname.lastname@example.org
Secretary/Treasurer: Yetta Jager (20022004) email@example.com
Web-Master: Mark Mackenzie firstname.lastname@example.org
Chapter home page: http://www.auburn.edu/seesa/
Spring 2004 Chapter
The chapter will meet with the Association of Southeastern Biologists
(ASB) in Memphis, Tennessee 1417 April 2004. Scott Franklin,
an ESA-SE member from the University of Memphis, will be one of our
hosts. Dan Simberloff will give the ASB keynote address on the evening
of Wednesday, 14 April, and a social will be held at the Gibson
guitar factory on 15 April. For more information, visit the meeting
web site: http://www.people.memphis.edu/~biology/asb/.
Symposium on Invasive
The ESA Southeast Chapter will co-host with the Tennessee Exotic
Pest Plant Council a symposium, Invasive Plant Awareness and
Research: Priority Status. The invasive plant symposium, coordinated
by Pat Parr and Jack Ranney, will be held Thursday morning, 15 April.
The symposium will also celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Tennessee
Exotic Pest Plant Council.
Appeal for 2004
We are within $1,250 of our goal of $10,000, which is the amount
needed to make the fund sustainable. To help us reach the goal this
year, please consider sending a check, made out to ESASE Chapter,
to the treasurer with an explanatory note.
Elections for chair and secretary/treasurer will be held at the Spring
2004 meeting for the term beginning in August 2004. If you have a
nomination, or if you are interested in finding out more about these
positions, contact Joan Walker or Paul Schmalzer soon.
Please remember to renew your membership in the SE chapter when you
renew your ESA membership. Your donations to the Eugene P. Odum Fund
support the 2004 best student paper award.
A proposed bylaws amendment to establish a poster award for the best
student poster will be posted on the Chapter web site and voted on
at our April 2004 meeting. Please read the amendment below and submit
any comments to Paul.
Sub-article 2d. QUARTERMAN-KEEVER AWARD. Annually, the Chapter shall
present an award supported by the Elsie Quarterman-Catherine Keever
Award fund. The purpose of the fund is to encourage excellence in
research by young ecologists. The fund shall be administered and invested
by the Business Manager of the Ecological Society of America. Income
from the fund shall be used each year to finance a suitable plaque
and cash award to be given to the student (from those who have applied)
judged to have presented the best poster on a clearly ecological topic
at the annual meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists.
The amount of the cash award will be set initially at $300. The amount
of the award may change as income from the Award fund increases, at
the recommendation of the Awards Committee, and with approval of the
The award recipient may be an undergraduate or graduate student,
must be the sole or senior author of the poster, must be present at
the meeting, and does not have to be a member of ESA. The poster must
be presented in a regular contributed poster session. The poster must
represent original work and should present a substantially completed
Each year the Chairperson shall appoint one person to the three-person
judging panel. It is expected that each member of the panel will serve
3 years and in the 3rd year will serve as the Quarterman-Keever Award
Coordinator for the panel. The Chairperson shall appoint additional
persons to the judging panel if any serving panel member is unable
to serve the entire 3-year term. The panel of judges shall evaluate
the poster using the following criteria: significance of ideas, creativity,
quality of methodology, validity of results, and clarity of presentation.
The award shall be presented at the ASB banquet, and the recipient
shall be announced in the summer newsletter.
The First Annual Southeastern Ecology and Evolution Conference will
be held in Atlanta, Georgia, 57 March 2004 (Abstract submission
deadline, 31 January 2004).
Keeping in Touch
Check the Chapter home page: http://www.auburn.edu/seesa/
for updates and additional information. Join the Southeastern Chapter
of ESA LISTSERVER: To join the ListServer, send a message to email@example.com
with subscribe scesa in the body of the message. Please
send news or announcements to firstname.lastname@example.org
for distribution to the listserv, or to email@example.com
for inclusion in the next quarterly newsletter.
to Table of Contents
ECOLOGY SECTION NEWSLETTER ~~E.C.
The E.C. Pielou Award is a competitive award made annually
to a graduate student or recent Ph.D, and is based on overall quality
of the students scientific contribution to statistical ecology.
The 2003 recipient of the E.C. Pielou Award is Katia Koelle for her talk
at the 2003 ESA Annual Meeting in Savannah, Disentangling the roles
of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in nonlinear disease dynamics.
Koelle is a third-year graduate student at the University of Michigan
and is advised by Mercedes Pascual. Her dissertation focuses on analyzing
the spatiotemporal dynamics of diseases, particularly diseases that may
experience significant climatic forcing. Her current research uses cholera
case data from Bangladesh to reconstruct the duration of temporary immunity
conferred by the disease and to examine the role of the El NiñoSouthern
Oscillation as an environmental driver of the disease. She received her
undergraduate degree in Biology from Stanford University in 1997.
Statistical Section Officers: Sam Scheiner, Randy Balice,
to Table of Contents
Exchanges between Eastern Asia and North America:
Threats to Environment and Economy
The Beijing International Symposium on biological invasions
will be held 811 June 2004 in Beijing, China. The symposium will
be co-organized by The Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences
(CAS), The Sino-Ecologists Club Overseas, Asian Ecology Section of ESA,
and the U.S. Geological Survey. Please visit http://bisobi.sino-eco.org
or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The Symposium banner (shown here) uses two typical invasive
species, one from Eastern Asia and one from North America, to represent
the challenges of biological invasions; the Great Wall symbolizes the
efforts to prevent and mitigate the threats to environment and economy
from such species exchanges.
Shown on the left of the photograph is kudzu (Pueraria montana var.
lobata), first introduced to the United States in 1876 at the Centennial
Exposition in Philadelphia by a Japanese government sponsored garden,
and now covering more than 7 million acres in the southeastern United
States. On the right is goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), native
to the United States and Canada, but exotic in China. The disproportionate
scale of kudzu and density of Solidago canadensis signifies the
seriousness of their threats.
Society of Mammalogists 84th Annual Meeting
The 84th Annual Meeting of the Ameican Society of Mammalogists
will be held 1116 June 2004 at Humboldt State University, Arcata,
California. In addition to contributed oral and poster presentations covering
all aspects of mammalian biology, this years program will feature
two symposia. Dr. Penny S. Reynolds will convene Problems of Sampling
and Statistical Assessment in Mammalogy Research. Habitat
Loss and Fragmentation: Impacts of Urban Sprawl on Mammals will
be convened by Dr. John A. Yunger. Special addresses will be offered by
the recipients of the Joseph Grinnell (Dr. David Schmidley) and C. Hart
Merriam (Dr. Terry Bowyer) awards, as well as by student honorees. Dr.
James Estes, best known for his work on the behavioral ecology of marine
mammals (especially sea otters) and on the community ecology of kelp forests,
will present the capstone presentation. Also included are the usual ASM
socials, ideal for professional interaction.
Nonmembers who are interested in attending the meetings
and/or presenting papers should request materials from the Chairman of
the Local Program Committee, Dr. Brian Arbogast, Department of Biological
Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521; (707) 826-4180;
Fax: 826-3201; E-mail: bsa2.humboldt.edu. For additional information,
please visit the meeting web site at http://www.humboldt.edu/~asm/
For more information about the ASM, please visit our web site at http://www.mammalsociety.org
Trout VIII Symposium: Working Together to Ensure the Future of Wild Trout:
Call for Papers and Posters
The meeting will be held 2022 September 2004 at the
Old Faithful Inn in Yellowstone National Park. The goals of the Symposium
are to bring together a broad and diverse audience representing governmental
entities, nongovernmental conservation organizations, media representatives,
educators, anglers, guides, and business interests associated with trout
fisheries to share their viewpoints on wild trout management and related
public policy, to exchange technical information, and to seek ways of
cooperatively advancing the conservation of wild trout resources.
Authors are encouraged to conslt the Wild Trout VIII web
for guidelines for abstract, poster, and manuscript preparation. Abstracts
must be submitted by 1 February 2004. For additional information, contact
Program Chair Robert Carline at email@example.com.
Defenders of Wildlife is pleased to announce Carnivores
2004: Expanding Partnerships in Carnivore Conservation. The conference
will be held 1417 November 2004 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This will
be our fifth biennial carnivore conservation conference. Defenders is
accepting oral (15-minute) and poster presentation submissions for Carnivores
2004. Abstract submissions must be received by 1 June 2004.
While the conference focus is on partnerships in conservation, we will
consider any papers covering topics such as biology, behavior, taxonomy,
general ecology, recovery, management, and economic impacts of terrestrial,
avian, and marine carnivore species (canids, bears, cats, mesocarnivores,
raptors, whales, dolphins, sharks, etc). Please visit our official conference
or leave a message at (202) 789-2844 x315 for complete Carnivores 2004
and abstract submission details.
Senior Species Program Associate
Defenders of Wildlife
to Table of Contents
in Coastal Habitat Restoration in the Northern Gulf States
Advances in Coastal Habitat Restoration
in the Northern Gulf States, a symposium cosponsored by the Coastal
Restoration and Enhancement through Science and Technology (CREST) Program,
with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), was held in Thibodaux, Louisiana (USA)
on 1-2 July 2003.
In order to integrate available scientific knowledge in
support of the restoration of coastal habitats in the northern Gulf of
Mexico, the symposium extended the definition of coastal habitat to include
adjacent freshwater wetlands, along with estuaries and nearshore marine
areas. This symposium is the first major contribution from the new CREST
program, which coordinates support from NOAA to university-based research
into the restoration ecology of coastal ecosystems in the northern Gulf
Fifteen invited speakers created the atmosphere of a particularly
well-attended national meeting of coastal ecologists. These presentations
drew on experience from at least nine regional wetland and coastal restoration
programs accrued over the past decade. Contributed posters and panel discussions
rounded out the program. The largely local audience was composed of state
and federal resource managers and academic scientiststhose who will
shoulder the burden of implementing restoration in the northern Gulf of
Mexico. The meeting was timely for its immediate audience, but it also
provided an impetus and opportunity to review progress achieved in coastal
The CREST symposium captured a snapshot of coastal restoration
in the United States and the ecosystem science behind it. The low-lying,
sedimentary coastlines found through much of the United States are defined
by a constantly changing geomorphology; it would be quixotic to attempt
to reconstruct and maintain coastal ecosystems in a particular former
state. Instead, coastal restoration means reestablishing natural patterns
in the processes that shape and sustain these ecosystems. In particular,
coastal restoration attempts to mitigate the negative impacts of human
activities and thus recover natural resources and ecological services
that have been lost.
Ecosystem science principally contributes to restoration
in three areas: by building an understanding of the mechanics of coastal
ecosystems, by identifying the effects of human activities, and by predicting
how these ecosystems will respond to attempts to restore them. The symposium
organized presentations on these topics around restoration goals related
to fish and wildlife (fauna), water quality, and wetlands vegetation (habitat).
In addition, several presentations addressed the challenges of integrating
science with management of coastal ecosystems. Success here depends on
negotiating with managers and stakeholders a common understanding of the
goals for restoration and a corresponding set of ecosystem attributes
in which changes can be predicted and measured.
The goal of maintaining fisheries and wildlife resources
serves as one of the main motivations for public investment in coastal
restoration. This presents managers and scientists with the challenging
task of establishing a clear link between characteristics of habitat and
the supported populations of fish and wildlife. Restoration in northern
San Francisco Bay depends on maintaining freshwater discharge in the Sacramento
River, which means that this freshwater cannot be provided to dry areas
outside the basin. Wim Kimmerer (San Francisco State University) described
the principal mechanisms linking higher freshwater discharge to increased
fish production in the Sacramento River delta. Counter to the conventional
wisdom, this link most likely consists of the direct response of fish
to physical conditions related to the amount of freshwater in the estuary,
rather than from any general enhanced productivity throughout the food
Thomas Minello (NOAA Fisheries) described similar work aimed
at documenting the effect of wetland restoration and creation on adult
populations of crustacea in Galveston Bay, which rely on these habitats
for nursery areas. Brown and white shrimp, as well as blue crabs, all
show enhanced populations at the edges of wetland areas, and this has
a direct implication for the design of wetland restoration projects. Charles
Peterson (University of North Carolina) argued persuasively that restoring
oyster reefs provides measurable benefits as habitat for other species
beyond the economic value of a sustained oyster fishery. The habitat value
of oyster reefs can be measured by increased production of other estuarine
fisheries. Restoring oyster reefs also contributes to maintaining water
quality, especially clarity, but these benefits are as yet difficult to
Eutrophication and contaminants pose chronic threats in
all coastal systems. Coastal restoration in the northern Gulf of Mexico
involves redistributing flow out of the main channel of the Mississippi
River. What risks does this pose for the estuarine areas that will receive
augmented flow and to the nearshore marine areas normally affected by
the rivers plume? Based on results of monitoring studies presented
by Charles Demas (USGS), water quality in the Mississippi River falls
within existing quality standards for contaminants. However, these standards
generally do not control for the risk of chronic stress, e.g., from long-lived
herbicides acting on wetland vegetation. Several other speakers addressed
the risk of eutrophication resulting from increased nutrient loading.
Increased nutrient loading can benefit restoration efforts
if it stimulates vegetative growth without the adverse effects of eutrophication
in the water column. In coastal Louisiana, increasing uptake of nitrogen
in wetlands may decrease the intensity of hypoxic conditions in shelf
waters fed by nutrients in the plume of the Mississippi River. Some scientists
believe that stimulating increased production of organic matter is the
key to converting increased sediment delivery from diversions into net
emergent marsh area. John Day (Louisiana State University) reported on
studies into the fate of nutrients introduced in Mississippi River water
diverted into estuarine basins that previously received little or no input
of riverine water and sediment. Dubravko Justic (Louisiana State University)
described the role of climatic factors on magnitude and extent of the
hypoxic zone of the Mississippi River, and the possible confounding effects
of long-term climate change on restoration efforts.
The role of hydrologic variability emerged as a minor theme
in discussions of threats to water quality and restoration strategies.
Hans Paerl (University of North Carolina) delivered a nuanced discussion
of the role of climate-driven variability in estuarine response to nutrient
loading and management control measures, based on experience in the Nuese
River and Pamlico Sound. Runoff is the primary factor determining the
annual load of nutrients in this system, but runoff also influences residence
time, which in turn modulates estuarine response to nutrient loading.
Although the influences of climate-driven pulsing on coastal ecosystems
are readily understood, it appears that such pulsing will make it difficult
to predict future trends in estuarine water quality.
Some encouraging results have been achieved in restoration
efforts in the United States, and the symposium provided an opportunity
to decipher strategic elements contributing to these successes. Chief
among these is knowing how to measure success. Chris Craft (Indiana University)
provided information from salt marsh creation projects implemented in
North Carolina over the past 10 years. Craft and others advocated tracking
success by using a variety of indices descriptive of vegetation and soil
properties, with target values keyed to representative reference
systems. Beth Middleton (USGS) argued, based on life history requirements
of freshwater wetland vegetation species, that recreation of wetland systems
dominated by riverine influence requires attention to the natural variability
in hydrologic forcing. Other speakers offered perspectives based on experience
in large-scale restoration in the Chesapeake Bay, the Columbia River,
and the Everglades of South Florida.
The underlying causes of wetland loss in the northern Gulf
differ from those of other coastal systems in the United States, and consequently
so will the mechanisms for reversing this loss. Missing from the symposium
was any information on the dynamic geomorphologic processes active along
this deltaic coast. Knowledge of these processes is keenly needed in planning
for coastal restoration. Beginning in the late 1800s, major construction
of various structures for flood control and navigation has interrupted
the natural geomorphic processes, although construction of levees began
with the settlement of New Orleans more than a century earlier. Similar
stories can be told for other large river deltas. To a large degree, restoration
of the ecosystems of a deltaic coast will depend on successfully recreating,
through river engineering, these lost geomorphic processes. This will
require gathering information about comparable coastal systems, i.e.,
large river deltas, worldwide. Perhaps this will be pursued in a future
Overall, the CREST programs inaugural symposium succeeded
in assembling an integrated view of current ecological science relevant
to coastal restoration, albeit limited to restoration efforts in the United
States. A set of papers based on the invited presentations, to be published
in a special issue of Ecological Engineering, should be of interest
to anyone working on restoration of coastal ecosystems. More information
on coastal restoration in the northern Gulf of Mexico can be found at
the CREST web site, http://www.gulfcrest.org/
11 Craig Street
Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 4B6
Piers Chapman --Director, CREST Office
1143 Energy, Coast and Environment Bldg
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
to Table of Contents
Bodies Cannot Occupy the Same Place at the Same Time, or The Importance
of Space in the Ecological Niche
Studies of resource partitioning and niche had their golden
era in the 1970s to the 1980s, but fell in disgrace after being convicted
of circular reasoning and not considering alternative hypotheses. Nevertheless,
niche theory persists and has a central role in contemporary ecological
theory (Cheesson 1991, Leibold 1995).
The initial definitions of ecological niche stressed the
idea of niche as an organisms position or place in the community,
or in the biotic environment (Grinnell 1917 and Elton 1927, respectively).
Hutchinson in 1957 described niche as a hypervolume in the n-dimensional
ecological space, also distinguishing the fundamental and realized niche.
After extensive literature surveys on community ecology, Schoener (1974,
1983) ranked the five most important factors of resource partitioning
as macrohabitat, microhabitat, food type, time of day, and seasonality
of activity. Pianka (1999) summarized niche dimensions in a subset of
the three most importantfood type, space and timeonce more
suggesting the importance of space and time in the organisms ecological
The importance of the spatial dimension of niche is stressed
in these definitions, but it was not followed by recognition of its a
priori importance over food type and time. Space is a limited resource
by definition. Theoretically, two bodies cannot occupy the same point
in space and time. In practice, species such as parasites and symbionts
differing greatly in body size could be in almost the same place at the
same time, where the body of one species is the immediate environment
of another. However, for organisms of similar size the theory holds: they
may overlap in habitat or microhabitat, but it is not likely that they
would overlap at the same point of the spacetime bi-dimensional
axis. Through deduction, partitioning of spacetime axes is expected
to be intense. When in close proximity, one will eventually be expelled,
be it an organism, a social group, or a colony. In close proximity, diet
segregation will not avoid exclusion of one of the organisms from the
site. Segregation in time could avoid this spatial exclusion, but it is
only possible if food resources are not limiting, or have high renewal
rates. Therefore, complete overlap in microhabitat and time cannot be
counteracted by segregation in food type. On the other hand, differentiation
(not necessarily segregation) in space use might counteract complete overlap
Since MacArthur (1958) and Connell (1961), the use of space
is an important niche dimension for understanding species coexistence
and competition. Space use seems to be the main factor explaining community
structure and species richness at the local (examples below) and continental
scales (e.g., Kelt et al. 1996), along elevational gradients (Patterson
et al. 1998), and along the evolutionary process of vertebrate radiation
(Streelman and Danley 2003). Differentiation in space use is a key factor
in community structure (see Cunha and Vieira  for small mammals;
Peres  for primates; Arlettaz  for bats; Howard and Hailey
 for reptiles, Brodman and Jaskula  for amphibians; MacArthur
 for birds, Krijger and Sevenster  for insects, Bouchon-Navaro
 for reef fishes, and Kohda and Yanagisawa  for lake cichlids).
In most cases, space use patterns clearly distinguish species with extensive
overlap in diet (see references above and the respective citations). Segregation
in space use may be more important in three-dimensional or complex environments
(sensu August 1983), such as tropical forests, coral reefs, and other
With space as the most important niche dimension, analysis
of space use patterns becomes a central requisite to study species coexistence,
especially in complex environments. In addition, use and availability
of space are frequently easier to measure than other dimensions of the
niche, particularly use and availability of food resources. Other dimensions
usually considered important, such as food resources and time use, should
always be considered as complementary to space use.
Arlettaz, R. 1999. Habitat selection as a
major resource partitioning mechanism between the two sympatric sibling
bat species Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii. Journal of
Animal Ecology 68:460471.
August, P. V. 1983. Heterogeneity in structuring tropical mammal communities.
Bouchon-Navaro, Y. 1986. Partitioning of food and space resources by chaetodontid
fishes on coral reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Brodman, R., and J. Jaskula. 2002. Activity and microhabitat use during
interactions among five species of pond-breeding salamander larvae. Herpetologica
Chesson, P. 1991. A need for niches? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6:2628.
Cunha, A. C., and M. V. Vieira. 2002. Support diameter, incline, and vertical
movements of four didelphid marsupials in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.
Journal of Zoology 258:419426.
Elton, C. 1927. Animal ecology. Sidgwick and Jackson, London, UK.
Howard, K. E., and A. Hailey. 1999. Microhabitat separation among diurnal
saxicolous lizards in Zimbabwe. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15:367378.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Population Studies: Animal
Ecology and Demography. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Grinnell, J. 1917. The niche-relationships of the California Thrasher.
Kelt, D. A., J. H. Brown, E. D. Heske, P. A. Marquet, S. R Morton, J.
R. W. Reid, K. A Rogovin, and G. Shenbrot. 1996. Ecology 77:746761.
Kohda, M., and Y. Yanagisawa. 1992. Vertical distribution of two herbivorous
cichlid fishes of the genus Tropheus in Lake Tanganyika, Africa.
Ecology of Freshwater Fishes 1:99103.
Krijger, C. L., and J. G. Sevenster. 2001. Higher species diversity explained
by stronger spatial aggregation across six neotropical Drosophila
communities. Ecology Letters 4:106115.
Leibold, M. A. 1995. The niche concept revisited: mechanistic models and
community context. Ecology 76:13711382.
MacArthur, R. H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of Northeastern
coniferous forests. Ecology 39:599619.
Patterson, B. D., D. F. Stoz, S. Solari, J. W. Fitzpatrick, and V. Pacheco.
1998. Contrasting patterns of elevation zonation for birds and mammals
in the Andes of southeastern Peru. Journal of Biogeography 25:593607.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian
flooded and unflooded forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:381405.
Pianka, E. R. 1999. Evolutionary ecology. Sixth edition. Addison-Wesley,
Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Schoener, T. W. 1974. Resource partitioning in ecological communities.
Schoener, T. W. 1983. Field experiments on interspecific competition.
American Naturalist 122:240285.
Streelman, J. T., and P. D. Danley. 2003. The stages of vertebrate evolutionary
radiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:126131.
André Almeida Cunha and Marcus Vinicius Vieira
Laboratório de Vertebrados
Departamento de Ecologia
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
CEP 21941-590 Brazil
Fax: (55) 21-25626313
to Table of Contents
of the Ecological Sciences, Part 12:
Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology
during the 1500s
The terms invertebrate zoology and parasitology were coined
later, but since our concern here is the history of ecology, not classification,
these terms are convenient indicators of subjects discussed. A number
of physicians advanced the knowledge of these subjects; the most prominent
are discussed here.
Girolamo Fracastoro (14781553) was from a patrician
family of Verona, and he studied medicine at the University of Padua,
which had one of the best medical schools in Europe. He was a true Renaissance
humanist who had broad interests and many friends in high places (Thorndike
1941:488493, Zanobio 1972). His most famous work, a 1346-line poem
in three books, Syphilis sive morbus Gallicus (1530), was more
famous for its literary than its scientific merits; it is the most famous
Renaissance poem in Latin (Eatough 1984:1). Perhaps he chose a verse format
because his own ideas were uncertain, and he wanted to convey them ambiguously.
Our name for this disease comes from the title of his poem.
Fig. 1. Girolamo Fracastoro [Wright 1930]
He tells us that this disease came to Italy with the invasion
of Charles VIIIs French army, hence the name morbus Gallicus (Fracastoro
1984, I:5), but that earlier it had come to Europe with Columbus
sailors (Fracastoro 1984, I:6970). He thought it was contagious
(Fracastoro 1984, I:130), but did not mention sexual transmission. What
was its source? Perhaps the air, corrupted by the planets and modified
by climate (Fracastoro 1984, I:182185). He was more explicit in
describing its symptoms (Fracastoro 1984, I:320367). Book I was
devoted to such speculations, and Books II and III were devoted to its
cure. He warned that south winds and the filth and sweat of unclean marshes
are dangerous (Fracastoro 1984, II:8186), and he thought that fish
was a dangerous food (Fracastoro 1984, II:118120). A concoction
of thyme, hops, fennel, parsley, and other herbs could help (Fracastoro
1984, II:174180), but if not effective, then try a mixture of styrax,
mercuric sulphide, lead, antimony, and grains of incense (Fracastoro 1984,
II:260263). However, another cure comes from the land where the
disease originated: lignum-sanctum, or guaiacum (Fracastoro 1984, III).
None of his advice seems original (Munger 1949, Eatough 1984:20). Neither
remedy was effective, and of course mercury and lead are dangerous. Mercury
might cause some sores to shrink, but at the expense of poisoning the
After 16 years of further medical practice, reading, and
pubishing, Fracastoros ideas on contagious disease were more definite,
and he published the prose treatise that is the basis of his place in
the history of medicine and his relevance for the history of ecology.
This book contained two distinct works: the first, on sympathy and antipathy,
was quite traditional and vacuous in its speculations (Wright 1930:xxxivxxxv,
Thorndike 1941:493496); the second part, on contagion, contagious
diseases, and cures, broke new theoretical ground. One historian of medicine
calls it a truly marvellous triumph of close observation and clear
reasoning, and the most important statement of contagion theory
before Pasteur (Winslow 1943:143). A later evaluation of Fracastoros
concepts emphasizes their speculative nature (Howard-Jones 1977). Both
evaluations seem valid; he studied the problem for many years, but could
only reason about it before development of the experimental method.
He identified three means of contagion: direct contact with
a sick person, contact with objects contaminated by a sick person, and
contagion at a distance (Fracastoro 1930: 7). Although reasoning by analogy
often led astray early naturalists, including Fracastoro, his reasoning
about contagion through contact was perceptive; he compared it to spoiled
grapes or apples spoiling others adjacent to them. Like Lucretius in ancient
Rome, he believed invisible germs could travel through air, though neither
of them argued that such germs were alive. Fracastoros concept of
germs was chemical (Winslow 1943:133).
Although unable to penetrate the fundamental mystery of
contagious diseases, it was a valuable step to survey the different kinds.
He realized that some diseases mainly attack children, and that some of
them cause fevers and pustules on the skin (Fracastoro 1930:73). He interpreted
these variolae as diseases of blood, and the pustules as putrefactions
escaping the body. Once that happens, the person seldom suffers the same
disease again. Rabies was a disease primarily of dogs, and it was known
since antiquity that they transmit it by their bites. Then it incubates
for 20 or 30 days, but sometimes for 46 months (Fracastoro 1930:125).
The symptoms he describes were well known, but his further speculations
on hydrophobia beyond that were fruitless. His ideas on syphilis were
now more definite than when he wrote his poem on it. He again tells us
it came to Naples from France with King Charles army in the 1490s,
and that it had come from the New World with Spanish seamen. But now he
also tells us that it is transmitted mainly by sexual intercourse, though
infants could get it from an infected mother or wet nurse by suckling
their milk (Fracastoro 1930:135137). Syphilis can cause pustules,
and he wanted to separate it from other maladies such as elephantiasis,
leprosy, and scabies, but that was too difficult a challenge, since one
might evolve into another: Psora, which is nowadays called scabies,
is a still milder affection than leprosy, but in a severer form it may
pass into leprosy, just as leprosy in a severe form may pass into elephantia
(Fracastoro 1930:171). To go further would require the laboratory techniques
of the 1800s.
Girolamo Gabuccini was an Italian physician who published
the first separate treatise on parasitic worms (Gabuccini 1547), which
attracted enough attention to appear in a second, possibly pirated edition
at Venice in 1547, and a third edition at Lyon in 1549. Parts of his account
of tapeworms (which were known since antiquity) are quoted in Latin by
Hoppeli (1959:104, 152, note 9); Gabuccini believed that the lesser heat
in the intestine leads to tapeworm formation (Hoppeli 1959:134). He also
described the liver fluke of sheep and goats (quoted in Latin by Reinhard
1957:209), first identified by a French sheep farmer, Jean de Brie, who,
at the encouragement of Charles V, wrote a treatise on managing sheep
in 1379. De Brie believed that sheep got flukes (Fasciola hepatica)
by eating a herb, la dauve, in marshy places. He was close to the truth,
since larval stages encyst on vegetation in marshy places to await sheep,
but de Brie thought the herbs leaves actually turned into flukes.
Anthony (or his brother John) Fitzherbert went further in his Boke
of Husbandrye (1523), describing two dangerous plants in marshy places,
but also describing the fluke itself (de Bries and Fitzherberts
accounts are quoted by Kean, Mott, and Russell [1978:561562], [Fitzherbert
1882:5051]). Gabuccini came no closer to solving the mystery of
the liver flukes life cycle than his two predecessors, and it would
be three centuries before breakthrough discoveries were made (Reinhard
1957:216220). His book is digested in a long chapter by Thomas Mouffet
entitled Of the Signs and Cure of Worms out of Gabucinus (1967:11111122).
It is so heavily documented with references to ancient and medieval authors
that it is difficult to detect any innovations beyond the synthesis itself.
Not only did physicians in the 1500s write medical books,
but some also wrote extensively on plants and animals (Egerton 2003a,
b). Edward Wotton (14921555) received his undergraduate education
at Oxford and his medical doctorate at Padua, then returned to practice
in London, where he served a term as president of the Royal College of
Physicians (Wheeler 1976). His De differentiis animalium libri decem
(Paris, 1552) was a survey of the animal kingdom, compiled largely from
classical sources. His original contributions were inserted in Book 9
on insects, where he struggled to reconcile his observations of sexual
reproduction with traditional belief in spontaneous generation. The weight
of tradition was too strong for him, and he concluded that both methods
of reproduction occur (Raven 1947:42).
During the second half of the 1500s there was a race to
publish the first book entirely on insects, although the participants
probably did not know of each others work. The Italian Ulisse Aldrovandi
became known in Europe first for his three volumes on birds (15991603);
the Englishman Thomas Penny had devoted much of his research to plants.
Aldrovandi and his assistants easily won the race with publication of
De animalibus insectis Libri VII (Bologna, 1602; later editions
in 1618, 1623, 1638), because Penny died before he had progressed beyond
collecting his information.
Aldrovandi, as he explained in a letter to Cardinal Maffeo
Barberini (later Pope Urban VIII, who condemned Galileo), collected his
insects on little expeditions (translated in Ley 1968:158):
I was in the habit of going into the
country for months during the summer and autumn, not for relaxation, like
others; for at these times I employed all my influence, as well as money,
to induce the country-people to bring me such insects, whether winged
or creeping, as they could procure, in the fields or under ground, and
in the rivers and ponds. When any were brought to me, I made inquiries
about its name, habit, locality, &c. I often, too, wandered over the
marshes and mountains, accompanied by my draughtsman and amanuenses, he
carrying his pencil, and they their notebooks. The former took a drawing
if expedient, the latter noted down to my dictation what occurred to me,
and in this way we collected a vast variety of specimens.
Since Gessner had not published on insects, Aldrovandi was
much more on his own for De Animalibus insectis than in other volumes
that depended heavily on Gessners work. Some of the original pages
of illustrations made by his draughtsman survive, and two of them are
published, along with extensive translations of the Latin text into German,
and modern identifications by Bodenheimer (19281929, I:250276,
II:336345), including the first dichotomic key ever written, to
determine the higher groups. Aldrovandis three volumes on birds
contained 1009 pages of text; he devoted 300 pages to insects. Section
I, of 95 pages, describes bees, wasps, and hornets; Section II, De
papilionibus, includes 81 species of Lepidoptera and also dragonflies;
Section III describes two-winged insects, including flies and mosquitoes;
Section IV, those with more than two wings: grasshoppers, crickets, beetles,
praying mantis; Section V, insects without wings: true insectsbugs
and antsbut also spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and millipedes;
Section VI, De vermibus, includes earthworms and shell-less
snails; Section VII is on water insects, but also includes marine worms
and starfish (Ley 1968:158159, Beier 1973:8586).
Fig. 2. Aldrovandi 1602. Reproduced from and identifications
by Bodenheimer 19281929, I:268.
Thomas Penny (c.15301588/1589) followed in the footsteps
of William Turner, and was a friend of Turners son, Peter (Raven
1947:153). Like Turner, he studied theology and medicine at Cambridge,
and in 1565 he traveled to Zurich to study medicine with Conrad Gessner.
That lasted only a few months before Gessner died suddenly of plague.
Before going there, Penny had already begun studying both plants and insects,
and after arriving he and Gessner shared their knowledge of these subjects
with each other. Gessner had planned a volume on insects (Théodoridès
1966), but his only insect account ever published was on scorpions
(Topsell 1967:750757). After Gessners death, Penny assisted
in preparing some of the manuscripts for publication, and he acquired
some of the manuscripts on insects (Raven 1947:157). Penny then traveled
and studied in Europe, 15661569, before returning with his M.D.
degree to England, where he practiced medicine in London. When he returned,
his botanical interest was dominant, but he spent the last 15 years of
his life preparing to write a book on insects, using Wootons, Gessners,
and his own materials. However, he never wrote the book, and gave his
materials to his young friend and colleague, Thomas Mouffet (15531604).
Mouffet had also studied at Cambridge, and had then received
his M.D. at Basel before practicing in London (Simpkins 1974). He reported
that Pennys materials were ill-arranged and ill-written (Raven 1947:172,
Mouffet 1967, Preface). As he organized them he added his own comments,
which were less useful than Pennys (Raven 1947:180, 189). Mouffet
was distracted by his busy medical practice and never published his Latin
manuscript. His widow sold it to Theodore Mayerne, who finally did publish
it at London in 1634. It has about 500 wood engravings of varying quality,
some of which are quite good (Beier 1973:86). An English translation was
published in 1658 as Volume 3 to Edward Topsells History of Four-Footed
Beasts and Serpents (Mouffet 1967). There was a strong emphasis on
insect pests and ways to combat them (Ordish 1976:5464). Although
Raven, an Englishman, found much to criticize in Mouffets book,
he nevertheless concluded that it was superior to Aldrovandis (1947:191).
It seems doubtful, however, that Italian scholars would agree; Aldrovandi
was quite interested in naming the different kinds of insect, but Mouffet,
when faced with a variety of different but similar kinds (such as butterflies),
was content merely to number them, though he did provide illustrations
and descriptions of each, which are often adequate for modern identifications
(Bodenheimer 19281929, II:345352). Although not denying the
possibility of spontaneous generation, he expressed skepticism about it
because no one claimed to have seen it happen (Mouffet 1967:984). On the
other hand, he was not always skeptical of folklore, such as the report
of India having locusts three feet long, whose hind legs were used as
saws (Mouffet 1967:985).
In at least one instance Mouffets (or Pennys?)
medical and entomological interests converged to produce original observationson
the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (1967:10941096), which had
been known since medieval times. We have a summary of his discoveries
3. Mouffet 1934. Reproduced from and identifications by Bodenheimer 19281929,
(1) Moffets description of the acarus, as well
as its itch-provoking and burrow-forming activities, was not only the
first account of the itch-mite published by an English author but was
also the best and most accurate that had anywhere been given up to his
time. Moffet, of course, was also familiar with the method of removing
the parasite by means of a needle. (2) He was the first to differentiate
the acarus from the pediculi. (3) His observation that the acarus was
to be found in the mines or furrowes hard by the
vesicle of scabies and not in the vesicle, antedated Renuccis epochal
statement to the same effect by exactly two hundred years.
This last comment on anticipating Renucci points to the
disadvantage of the vast encyclopedic works of the 1500s: pearls of wisdom
were easily lost in compendiums of ancient and medieval learning.
The honey bee had been domesticated in antiquity and was common in Europe
and elsewhere (Chauvin 1968). Mouffets longest discussion is on
bees (1967:889921), but their social structure was not understood.
Among other things, the queen was considered a king. Although Mouffet
made the connection between caterpillars and butterflies and moths, he
nevertheless discussed them in different chapters for the good reason
that he seldom could connect particular adults with particular caterpillars
(1967:957974, 10291041). The same was true about the connection
between grubs in the ground and beetles, which he also discussed in different
chapters (1967:10051016, 10421044), though he knew that the
whurlworm The next year after they are bred, they are alwaies transformed
into May Beetles (1967:1043).
Fig. 4. Mouffet 1967:971: The middle sort of Day-Butterflies
1 and 2.
Invertebrate animals and diseases were more difficult subjects
to study during the 1500s than either vertebrate animals or vascular plants,
because there were so many invertebrates, and they, and the causal organisms
of parasitic diseases, were smaller beings. Although eyeglasses were invented
about 1285 (James and Thorpe 1994), stronger magnifying lenses and microscopes
were not developed until the 1600s, stimulated by development of the telescope
in 1608 (Bud and Warner 1998:387). Despite the difficulties, physicians
and naturalists made important progress in describing invertebrates and
diseases, as well as interactions with other organisms.
Beier, Max. 1973. The early naturalists and
anatomists during the Renaissance and seventeenth century. Pages 8194
in R. F. Smith, T. E. Mittler, and C. N. Smith, editors. History of entomology.
Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, California, USA.
Bodenheimer, F. S. 19281929. Materialien zur Geschichte der Entomologie
Two volumes. W. Junk, Berlin, Germany.
Bud, R., and D. J. Warner, editors. 1998. Instruments of science: an historical
encyclopedia. Garland, New York, New York, USA.
Chauvin, R., editor. 1968. Traité de biologie de labeille.
Volume 5: Histoire, ethnographie et folklore. Masson, Paris, France.
Eatough, G. 1984. Introduction. Pages 135 in Fracastoros
Syphilis. Translated by G. Eatough. Francis Cairns, Liverpool, UK.
Egerton, F. N. 2003a. A history of the ecological sciences, Part 10: Botany
during the Italian Renaissance and beginnings of the scientific revolution.
ESA Bulletin 84:130137.
Egerton, F. N. 2003b. A history of the ecological sciences, Part 11: Emergence
of vertebrate zoology during the 1500s. ESA Bulletin 84:206212.
Fitzherbert, A. [or J.] 1882. The book of husbandry. Edited by W. W. Skeat.
Trübner, London, UK.
Fracastoro, G. (1530, fide Wright 1930). Syphilis sive morbus gallicus.
Niccolini da Sabbio, Verona, Italy.
Fracastoro, G. (1546, fide Wright 1930). De sympathia et antipathia rerum
liber I. De contagione et contagiosis morbis et Curatione libri III. L.
Iuntae, Venice, Italy.
Fracastoro, G. 1930. De contagione et contagiosis morbis et eorum curatione,
libri III. Latin with English translation by W. C. Wright. G. P. Putnams
Sons, New York, New York, USA.
Fracastoro, G. 1984. Fracastoro's Syphilis. Latin with English translation
by G. Eatough. Fransic Cairns, Liverpool, UK.
Friedman, R. 1934. Thomas Moffet. The tercentenary of his contribution
to scabies. Medical Life 41:620621.
Gambuccini, G. [Latin: Gabucinus, H.] 1547. De lumbricis alvum occupantibus,
ac de ratione curande eos, qui ab illis infestantur, commentarius. Joan
Gryphium and H. Scotus, separate editions, Venice, Italy.
Howard-Jones, N. 1977. Fracastoro and Henle: a reappraisal of their contribution
to the concept of communicable disease. Medical History 21:6168.
James, P., and N. Thorpe. 1994. Ancient inventions. Ballantine Books,
New York, New York, USA.
Kean, B. H., K. E. Mott, and A. J. Russell, editors. 1978. Tropical medicine
and parasitology: classic investigations. Two volumes. Cornell University
Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Ley, W. 1968. Dawn of zoology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
Mouffet, T. 1634. Insectorum sive minimorum animalium theatrum: olim ab
Edoardo Wotton, Conrado Gesnero, Thomaque Pennio inchoatum. T.Cotes, London,
Mouffet, T. 1967. The theater of insects. [Volume 3 of E. Topsell, The
history of four-footed beasts and serpents and insects. Facsimile of 1658
edition.] Da Capo Press, New York, New York, USA.
Munger, R. S. 1949. Guaiacum, the holy wood from the New World. Journal
of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 4:196229.
Ordish, G. 1976. The constant pest: a short history of pests and their
control. Charles Scribners Sons, New York, New York, USA.
Raven, C. E. 1947. English naturalists from Neckam to Ray: a study of
the making of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
Reinhard, E. G. 1956. Landmarks of parasitology I. The discovery of the
life cycle of the liver fluke. Experimental Parasitology 6:208232.
Simpkins, D. M. 1974. Thomas Moffett (Moufet, Muffet). Dictionary of Scientific
Théodoridès, J. 1966. Conrad Gesner et la zoologie: les
invertébrés. Gesnerus 23:231237.
Thorndike, L. 1941. A history of magic and experimental science. Volume
5. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
Topsell, E. 1967. The history of four-footed beasts and serpents and insects.
Volume 2: The history of serpents taken principally from the Historiae
Animalium of Conrad Gesner. Da Capo Press, New York, New York, USA.
Wheeler, A. 1976. Edward Wotton. Dictionary of Scientific Biography 14:507508.
Winslow, C. E. A. 1943. The conquest of epidemic disease: a chapter in
the history of ideas. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey,
Wright, W.C. 1930. Introduction. Pages vliv in G. Fracastoro. De
contagione et contagiosis morbis et Eorum curatione, libri III. G.P. Putnams
Sons, New York, New York, USA.
Zanobio, B. 1972. Girolamo Fracastoro. Dictionary of Scientific Biography
I thank Anne-Marie Drouin-Hans, Université de Bourgogne,
Jean-Marc Drouin, Musée National dHistoire Naturelle, Paris,
Benedicte Bilodeau, Centre Alexandre Koyré, Paris, and Sidney A.
Ewing, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
Oklahoma, for their assistance.
Frank N. Egerton
Department of History
University of Wisconsin-Parkside
Kenosha WI 53141
to Table of Contents
Reflections on the Intertidal Zone
On a summer day two mussels met,
One a traveler the other set
On the rock where he was born,
Feeling quite bored and a tad forlorn.
Edulis told his cousin tales
Of acorn barnacles and humpbacked whales,
And the one who was always held down by his byssus
Suddenly realized just what he misses.
So he told his brother and the one convinced another,
And then there were three who went down to the sea.
But before theyd gone far, they saw a sea star,
The reason they never did roam so far from home.
They called out for help as they raced by some kelp.
A Thais replied, contemplating low tide,
But the snail had grown fat and only wanted to chat.
Said Californianus, please dont detain us.
Were in quite a hustle, so said the mussel,
Who harbored the fine wish of avoiding the starfish.
The three tried to go faster, in the face of disaster
But right behind was Pisaster: the Intertidal Master.
All three longed for the life before
When theyd stayed away from their predator,
And just when they thought it would be their last day,
A wave came and swept the Pisaster away.
But their byssus threads held our three heroes on tight
And they came through the onslaught feeling all right.
They returned to their rock and from that day swore
They would stay in their niches for evermore.
Meghan MacLean Weir
Green College, Oxford OX2 6HJ
to Table of Contents
DEADLINES: Contributions for publication
in the Bulletin must reach the Editors office by the deadlines shown
below to be published in a particular issue:
January (No. 1) 15 October
April (No. 2) 15 January
July (No. 3) 15 April
October (No. 4) 15 July
Please note that all material for publication
in the Bulletin must be sent to the Bulletin Editor. Materials sent to
any address except that of the Editor, given below, must then be forwarded
to the Editor, resulting in delay in action on the manuscripts. Send all
contributions, except those for Technological Tools, Ecology 101, and
Obituaries/Resolutions of Respect (see addresses below), to Allen M. Solomon,
Bulletin Editor-in-Chief, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 200 S.W.
35th Street, Corvallis, OR 97333. Phone: (541) 754-4772. Fax: (541) 754-4799.
MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION: The manuscript should
be submitted as a WordPerfect or Microsoft Word (for Mac or DOS) manuscript,
preferably as an e-mail message attachment to
firstname.lastname@example.org. E-mailed photographs and diagrams must be in .tiff
or .eps format. Other forms of electronic copy (text embedded in e-mail
messages, diskettes sent by post) or hard copy can be submitted if absolutely
necessary. If formatting could be troublesome (e.g., tables, European
alphabet characters, etc.), hard copy also should be sent via fax to Allen
M. Solomon at (541) 754-4799, or via post. Hard-copy manuscripts should
be double-spaced, with ample margins. Plain formatting must be used on
hard-copy and electronic manuscripts. PLAIN FORMATTING consists of a single
font of a single size, left justification throughout, line spacing the
same throughout, and up to three different weights of headings. Other
formats will not be accepted for publication. The author should THOROUGHLY
PROOF the manuscript for accuracy, paying special attention to phone and
fax numbers and web site and e-mail addresses, which are frequently incorrect.
COVER PHOTOGRAPHS: The photo should illustrate
ecological processes or an ecological research design. The covers of the
June, September, and December 1993 issues are good examples. It helps
if the colors in the photo are bright, although black and white photos
are especially sought if they are well composed with good contrast, as
in the March 1993 issue.
Send a single 5 x 7 or 8 x 10 photo to the Bulletin. On an accompanying
photocopy, give your name, address, a photo legend up to 100 words, and,
if the photo describes a paper in ESA or in another journal, the literature
citation or title of the accepted manuscript. If you wish unused photos
to be returned please include a self-addressed return envelope.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR AND COMMENTARIES: Please
indicate if letters are intended for publication as this is not always
obvious. The Bulletin publishes letters, longer commentaries, and philosophical
and methodological items related to the science of Ecology. There are
no page limits but authors may be asked to edit their submissions for
clarity and precision. Previously published items from other sources can
be republished in the Bulletin if the contributor obtains permission of
the author and the copyright holder, and clearly identifies the original
MEETING ANNOUNCEMENTS: Submit a brief prose
description of the upcoming meeting, including title, a short paragraph
on objectives and content, dates, location, registration requirements,
and meeting contact persons name, street address, and phone/fax/e-mail
address. Please do not submit meeting brochures in the expectation that
the Editor will write the prose description; he wont. Compare the
publication deadlines above with the meeting deadlines to be sure the
announcement will appear in time.
MEETING REVIEWS: The Bulletin publishes reviews
of symposia and workshops at the annual ESA meeting, as well as important
and appropriate meetings that are unrelated to the annual ESA meeting.
The reviewer should strive for a synthetic view of the meeting or symposium
outcome, i.e., how the various presentations fit or conflict with each
other and with current scientific thought on the topic. Review length
is open, although about four double-spaced pages should be enough to capture
the essence of most meetings.
The following advisory items are provided
to help focus your review.
a) Meeting title, organizer, location, sponsoring organizations?
b) What were the meeting objectives, i.e., what scientific problems was
the meeting organized to solve? Who cares (i.e., what was the relevance
of this scientific problem to related ones under examination)?
c) How well did the meeting meet the objectives? Were there specific papers
delivered or roundtables/discussion groups that were exemplary in reaching
the objectives? You may concentrate the review on only the outstanding
papers to the exclusion of all others, or give a comprehensive view of
all presentations/meeting activities, or examine a selection of papers
that neither describes all, nor focuses on a very few.
d) What new was discussed? What previously weak hypotheses were strengthened,
confirmed or supported? Were any breakthroughs, or new or innovative hypotheses
presented, that forced participants to rethink current concepts?
e) Was there anything else important that the meeting accomplished that
may not have been part of its explicit objectives?
f) What subjects relevant to the meeting objectives were missing or left
out? Did the scientific components of the problem that were included produce
a strong slant or serious void by virtue of blind spots by the organizers,
failure of invitees to appear, or similar difficulties?
g) Are there plans for a proceedings issue or meeting summary document,
and if so who is editing it, who is publishing it, and when is it planned
to appear (i.e., where can interested folks learn more about the meeting?)
TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS: Submissions for this
section should be sent to the Section Editor in charge of the section:
Dr. David Inouye, Department of Zoology, University of Maryland, College
Park, MD 20742. E-mail: email@example.com
ECOLOGY 101: Submissions should be sent to
the Section Editor in charge of this section: Dr. Harold Ornes, College
of Sciences, SB 310A, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT 84720.
FOCUS ON FIELD STATIONS: Correspondence and
discussions about submissions to this section should be sent to Allen
M. Solomon, Bulletin Editor-in-Chief, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
200 S.W. 35th Street, Corvallis, OR 97333. Phone: (541) 754-4772. Fax:
(541) 754-4799. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBITUARIES AND RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT: Details
of ESA policy are published in the Bulletin, Volume 72(2):157158,
June 1991, and are abstracted below. The death of any deceased member
will be acknowledged by the Bulletin in an Obituary upon submission of
the information by a colleague to the Historical Records Committee. The
Obituary should include a few sentences describing the persons history
(date and place of birth, professional address and title) and professional
accomplishments. Longer Resolutions of Respect, up to three printed pages,
will be solicited for all former ESA officers and winners of major awards,
or for other ecologists on approval by the President. Solicited Resolutions
of Respect will take precedence over unsolicited contributions, and either
must be submitted to the Historical Records Committee before publication
in the Bulletin.
to Table of Contents